پرسشهای معمول در lets go سه شنبه 5 مرداد1389 1:10
  1.                                                                                                                                    

2.    Hi/Hello

3.    Good morning/Good afternoon/Good evening/Good night/

4.    How are you?

5.    What’s your name?

6.    How old are you?

7.    Where do you live?

8.    What is your nationality?      

9.    What do you do?

10.                       What’s your father’s/mother’s/sister’s/ brother’s/ friend’s name?

11.                       How many brothers/sisters do you have?

12.                       What can you do?

13.                       What can’t you do?

14.                       What’s your favorite color/animal/food/fruit/sport?

15.                       What is it?

16.                       Is it a paper?

17.                       What do you have in your hand?                  

18.                       Who are in the class?

19.                       What are in the class?

20.                       When were you born?

21.                       Where were you born?

22.                       Where do you like to travel?

23.                       A: Here you are

24.                       B: Thank you

25.                       A: you are welcome

 

26.                        .What color is this?

27.                        .What are these?

28.                        How many books are there?

29.                        .Who is she?

30.                        .How is the weather?

31.                        Where is the kite?

32.                        .What do you want?

33.                        .Do you want chicken?

34.                       .What are these?

35.                       . Who are they?

36.                       .Where do you live?

37.                       What's your address?

38.                       .What's your telephone number?

39.                       .What's wrong?

40.                       .What's for lunch?

41.                       .What does your father like?

42.                       .Whose watch is that?

43.                       What do you have in your bag?

44.                       .What time is it?

45.                       .What do you do in the morning?

46.                       What's your father doing?

47.                       What are/is you/he doing?

48.                       .Do you have any money?

49.                       What are you making?

50.                       Does your father have any car?

51.                       .Can you play with us?

52.                       .What do you do on Fridays?

53.                       What is your favorite day?

54.                       When do you get up?

55.                       .Do you ever watch TV?

56.                       .Which book do you like?

57.                       .What are you wearing?

58.                       Where are you going?

59.                       .How are you going?

60.                       .Where were you yesterday?

61.                       What did you do yesterday?

 

62.                       .Do you have any brother or sister?   

63.                       .How old is your father?

64.                       .Who is younger, you or your father?  

65.                       .What does your father do?

66.                       .What does a baker usually do?

67.                       .Who was first? Who was last?

68.                       .What were you doing yesterday?

69.                       .What is the date today?

70.                       When is your birthday?

71.                       .What did you do on your birthday?

72.                       .Why did he stay home?

73.                       .What's happen?

74.                       .What does he like to do?

75.                       .Are you going to play football on Friday?

76.                       .What does he have to do?

77.                       What do you want to be?

78.                   What’s he going to do?

 

 

79.                       What did they do yesterday?

80.                       What does he want to do?

81.                       What does he look like?

82.                       Which man is your cousin?

83.                       Do you have a big family or small family?

84.                       How many people live with you?

85.                       He is going to go camping, what will he need?

86.                       What will they do tomorrow?

87.                       What do you think about English?

88.                       Why does he like winter best?

89.                       What’s in the blue basket?

90.                       How much water is there?

91.                       How many oranges is there?

92.                       When did he learn how to ride a bike?

93.                       What was she doing when the doorbell rang?

94.                       Have you ever eaten pizza?   

 

 

نوشته شده توسط راسم قربانی  | لینک ثابت |

اصطلاحات کلی در lets go سه شنبه 5 مرداد1389 1:7

1.Close your book.                                                                                2.Touch your desk.

3.Raise your hands.                                                                            4.Write your name.                                                                              5.Come here.                                                                                   6.Give me the book.                                                                            7.Do homework. _ Clean up.                                                           8.This is for you.                                                                                 9.Do puzzle _Hit a ball.                                                                 10.Read a book.      _ride a bicycle.                                                     11.I 'm hungry. _ I'm thirsty.                                                                12.You are welcome.

13 Nice to meet you.                                           

1.See you later.         

2.What's matter?

3.That's too bad, get better soon.         

4.Bedroom_ kitchen_ dinning room_ living room_ bathroom

5.There is a chair next to the table.

6.That's good.

7.Good night

1.Excuse me!                                                                    2.Twenty  _  twelve                         

3.I'm hungry _ I'm thirsty.

4.My father always drive this car to work.                           5.Striped _ polka-dot.

6.It's snowing. _ The sun is shinning.                                        7.Let me help you!

 

1.Dentist _ Factory worker.                                                2.Bankteller

3.Are you ready?                                                                        4.I can't remember!                                                                5.Headach  _ Toothache                                                      6.Guess what!          

7.Do you know how?                                                           8.Good for you!

9.Wash the dishes _ sweep the floor.                                 10.They tide one game.

11.Climb a mountain. _ Write a book.

Take care of _Volunteer                                                       2.Have a good trip.

Her uncle is the man with the read hair.

Would you like to have a company with us?

5. Flashlight _ tent _ towel                                                    6.Fast _ faster _ the    fastest

7. Wait for us!                                                                                    8. Homestay _ homesick

نوشته شده توسط راسم قربانی  | لینک ثابت |

گرامر 3 دوشنبه 4 مرداد1389 20:21

 

LESSON THREE

ABOUT GRAMMAR.

1. If you want to tell someone what you believe, do not say:

"FOR my opinion . . . "!

This is wrong! "In" is the correct preposition to use, not "for". So you should say, for example:

"IN my opinion, foreigners spend too much time drinking beer."

But you must not say:

"FOR my opinion, foreigners spend too much time drinking beer."

2. If you want to tell someone why someone has done something, do not say:

"Somkiet went to Petachaburi FOR visit his mother last week."

This is wrong! "FOR" must not be used before a simple verb such as "visit". You should use the word "TO" for this purpose. So you should say, in this example:

"Somkiet went to Petachaburi TO visit his mother last week."

There are three common ways to point to the reason for someone's action. These are by using the words

"IN ORDER TO" or "TO" or "SO AS TO ".

Here is how they are used:

If you want to show that the action was one the subject wanted to take for a special purpose, use "in order to", as in this example:

"This term the children had to study very hard IN ORDER TO pass their exams."

You also can use "to" or "so as to",
but these are not very good, as you will see below.

If you want to show that someone's action was for a reason that the subject might not be happy about, or that it was not for a special purpose, use "to", as in these examples:

"John has gone to Singapore TO get a new visa for Thailand."
(There was a special purpose, but he might not be happy about going.)

"After work, Alice left with her boyfriend TO enjoy a plate of Chinese food."
( There was no special purpose, but she surely was happy about going.)

You also can use "in order to" or "so as to",
but these may not give the best meaning to an English native speaker.

If you want to show that someone's action was just a way to get some special result, but perhaps not for any other reason,

use "so as to ", as in this example:

"The old man moved closer to the speaker, so as to hear him better."
(This was just a way for the old man to hear better. He may not have wanted to move and cause everyone else to watch him.)

You also can use "in order to" because the subject did something for a special purpose,
but "to" is not good usage, because that shows no special purpose.

In summary, at least use one of these three ways to show the reason for someone's action. Don't worry if you sometimes make the wrong choice. So do English native speakers! But never use "FOR" before a verb to show the reason for an action. That's bad!

You can use FOR before a noun, in order to show the meaning "to get or have", as in this example:

"The staff are all out FOR lunch."
(to have)

Above, you have seen some of the problems people have with two words of just 2 or 3 letters: "FOR" and "AS". So now let's learn more about them!

3. "For".

     A.      To point out the person you have talked about before "FOR":

"It's unusual FOR Nongnuch to be away from home so late in the evening."
(Nongnuch is a person not likely to be away from home late in the evening.)

If this sentence is not true, just put NOT before the word telling about the person you are discussing, as in this example:

"It's not unusual FOR Nongnuch to be away from home so late in the evening."

     B.      In the meaning of "pointed toward" or "when considering, or thinking about", as in these examples:

"All the children felt a dislike FOR the rude old woman next door."
(They felt a dislike, which was pointed toward the old woman.)

"Veerachai's family couldn't understand the reason FOR his actions."
(They thought about, or considered, his actions,
but didn't understand why they happened.)

Other nouns, similar to "dislike" or "reason", that can come before FOR are, for example:

"admiration" - "desire" - "responsibility" - "need" - "respect" - "search" -
"taste" - "substitute" - "thirst" . . . and there are a lot of others!

     C.     To point to a period of time, as in the following example:

"Louis and Mitchell have been studying Thai FOR six months."
("Six months" is the period of time in which they have been studying.)

     D.     In the meaning "because of" or "in order to get, receive or find", as in the following examples:

"We apologize FOR being late, Mr. Smith."
("We apologize because of being late, Mr. Smith.")

"A young Indonesian gentleman came into my office yesterday
to apply FOR a job."
(He came in in order to get a job.)

Other verbs like "apologize" and "apply" which are used before FOR include, as examples:

"ask" - "look" - and "wait".

SPECIAL TIP ABOUT "FOR": "FOR" is a preposition; and when a preposition (any preposition) comes before a verb, the verb must end in "-ing", as in this example:

"The fine FOR throwing garbage on the street is 2,000 baht."

4.     "As".

     A.      In the meaning "when" or "at the same time that", as in this example:

"She cried AS she told us about her bad experience at home."
(when)

     B.      In the meaning "because" when we only want to explain a reason, and not make the listener share a feeling with us, as in these examples:

"AS it was getting late, we had to make the children go to bed."

But if we want to explain a reason so as to make the listener share a feeling with us, we could say:

"Khun Rung was late for work again.
This time it was BECAUSE she didn't hear her alarm clock ring."

Or if we want to explain a reason in a way that clearly shows our feeling about some action, we could say:

"Since you refuse to do your homework,
I'm not going to let you go out with your friends this evening."
(I feel upset, so I'm going to do something to make you know that.)

     C.      In the meaning "immediately after", we use "AS" both before and after the word "SOON", as in this example:

"AS SOON AS the robber got back to his hotel room, the police arrested him."

NOTE: In this meaning,

     Never say:

"Please call me WHEN you WILL get home".
("When" points to the future, anyway.)

     Always say:

"Please call me AS SOON AS you get home."

     D.       In the meaning "the way", as in this example:

"She argues with people AS she does
because she's afraid they'll think she's stupid if she doesn't."

     E.      After "SO LONG", meaning "if, and only if" or "on the condition that", as in this example:

"You may use my car tonight, SO LONG AS you drive it safely and carefully."
(if and only if, or on the condition that)

     F.      Before "if" or "though", in the following meanings:

          1.      AS IF: "In a way that could cause one to believe (that)", as in the following example:

"Kantana talks about the new department manager AS IF he were dishonest."
(She talks about him in a way
that could cause one to believe
he is dishonest.)

          2.      AS THOUGH: "In a way that almost makes one believe (that)", as in the following example:

"Pichit acts AS THOUGH he were experiencing a personal problem."
(He acts in a way that almost makes one believe
he is having a personal problem.)

     G.      After the words "THE SAME", in the meaning "equal to that of" or "not different from", as in these examples:

"`Mary's dress was THE SAME AS mine,' Nancy complained after the party."
(not different from)

"I got 82% on the exam, THE SAME AS George."
(equal to that of)

NOTE:     Never say:

". . . the same mine" or
". . . the same you":

               Always say:

"His book is THE SAME AS mine." Or,
"Her opinion is THE SAME AS yours."

NOTES: The words "the same as" often have adverbs before them to show that there really is a little difference, as in this example:

"Jason's car is almost THE SAME AS Dan's."

If this sentence is not true, just put NOT before the words THE SAME AS, as in this example:

"Jason's car is not THE SAME AS Dan's."

Other adverbs that can be used besides "almost" are, for example:

"nearly" - "just" - "exactly" - "roughly" - "much" - and "more or less".

ABOUT PRONUNCIATION.

1.      "Th" and "Th". In Lessons One and Two, you learned that "V" is the same sound as "F", except that you don't let any air out when you pronounce "V", and that "Z" is the same sound as "S", except that you don't let any air out when you pronounce "Z". "Th" and "Th" are the same in one way as V/F or Z/S, because you don't let any air come out when you say "th", but they are different in the way you use your tongue when you pronounce them! To explain why we write these letters in a different way, but in a real word there is no difference, it is because there are only a few words that have the "th" sound (and you need to learn which words these are right away)! The most common such words are:

"this" - "that" - "these" - "those" - "there" - "their" -
"thus" - "then" - "they" - "them" - and "though".

The line through the "th" is to help you remember not to let air out when you pronounce words with this sound. To make the "th" sound, put your tongue outside you mouth just a little (about 1/2 centimeter) and try to pronounce "T" while your tongue is touching your upper teeth. Do not pull your tongue back inside your mouth until you have made the complete sound. (Don't be afraid! Your tongue is outside your mouth so little that no one will see it at all!) Practice what you have learned by saying each of the words above.

"Th", without the line through it, is pronounced in the following way:

First, put your tongue outside your mouth about 1/2 centimeter.

Then, as you try to say "T",

slowly pull your tongue back inside your mouth
while it is touching the bottom of your upper teeth,
and let air come out of your mouth!

It's easy! Remember: "th" and "th" are not the same sound as "t" or "d", but if you don't use your tongue as we teach you here, you will say a "t" or a "d" -- and pronounce a lot of English words in a very strange way indeed!

2.     "D" and "T".

     A.      Inside a word, "d" is almost always pronounced as "d", and "t" is almost always pronounced as "t". But, when you add "-d" or "-ed" to the end of a verb to make the past tense,

"D" takes the sound of "t" if the verb ends in one of the following ways:

with "ce" as in "paced" = PAYST
with "ck" as in "tacked" = TAEKT
with "k" as in "baked" = BAYKT
with "nk" as in "banked" = BANGKT
with "p" as in "camped" = KAEMPT
with "ss" as in "passed" = PAEST
with "sh" as in "pushed" = POOSHT
with "x" as in "fixed" = FIHKST.

     B. All other letters at the end of a word to which you add "-d" or "-ed" give "d" the sound of "d". But if there is a "dd" or a "tt" before the "-ed", you must add one new syllable (one complete new sound) to your word, as in the following examples:

pad + d + ed = padded = PAE-dehd
pot + t + ed = potted = PAH-tehd
or POR-tehd.

NOTE: Do not worry, for now, about when a "d" or a "t", for example, doubles at the end of a word before "-ed" is added. We will learn all about that later on!

IS THIS ENOUGH TO LEARN FOR ONE WEEK?
If so,
LET'S PLAY A LEARNING GAME!

There are 10 questions. Print out this lesson, and write your answers in pen. Then click to check your work after you finish!

SCORING:

If you get 6 1/2-10 right answers:
You're a fox: beautiful, smart and able to solve hard problems!

If you get 3 1/2-6 right answers:
You are a hunter: very patient, but not able to catch the fox!

If you get fewer than 3 right answers: You are a(n) ...
Never mind. You just need to study the lesson again!

INSERT THE CORRECT ANSWER.

1.

"______ our lawyer's opinion, this new tax law will help our company a lot."

2.

Why is the following sentence wrong? "We have an appointment for meet Mr. Sukhavich."
We must not use "____________" before ______ _____________ ___________.

3.

What does "in order to" show in the following sentence? "We had to borrow money in order to pay our bills." It shows _____ ____________ ______________.

4.

Choose the best answer. "Janice went downtown ___________________ buy some furniture for our bedroom."
A. in order to
B. to
C. so as to

5.

"Our parents had a great deal of love in their hearts ________ every member of our family."

6.

"_________ the earth needs more than one year to go around the sun, every four years we get an extra day added to our calendar."

7.

"I will check my answers to this Learning Game just as _________ _________ I finish it."

8.

"No one knows why she fights with her husband ______ she does."

9.

Is the sound of "th" the same as that of "th"? _________. (If not, think about why not.)

10.

Look at these words: KISSED - BLINKED - CHECKED - TAXED. How should you pronounce the "d" in these words?
As a "_____".

 

LESSON TWO

ABOUT GRAMMAR.

1. "Big" words are very easy to find the meaning of. For example, if you need to find out the meaning of "hypochondriac" ( hai- poh-KORN-dree-ak), you will find in your dictionary that it means (in Thai words):

A person who almost always thinks he is sick
(or has some new kind of sickness), when, really, he may not be sick at all.

So, in order to speak and use English rather well all over the world, you actually need to know only about 3,000 small or common words (plus, of course, any other words you have to use in doing your job at the office)!

2. You must accept the truth that you actually have not learned well the small words of English (of 2-4, or sometimes 5 letters) that you need to know in order to speak and use English well anywhere! Such words include:

"as", "be", "am", "is", "are", "was", "were", "have", "had", "ever", "never", "it",
"one", "if", "in", "at", "on", "of", "so", "such", "some", "other", "more", "most";

and these free lessons will help you to know, understand and become skillful in using all of these very rapidly (and the ways that "little" words also can become "big" words), so you can spend your English-improvement time learning "big" words to go along with them)!

3. "So".

        A. In the meaning of "like that" or "in that way". Thai people often say:

"I think that."

when they want to show that they agree with the speaker. English native speakers know what they mean, but it is wrong! In order to speak good English, they should say:

"I think so."

Other verbs you can use instead of "think" are (for example): "guess", "suppose", "believe", "hope", "imagine", "be afraid" and "suspect". And if you do not agree with the speaker, you can use the word "don't" and say, for example:

"I don't believe so."

This answer is made:

After the speaker gives an opinion, such as:

"Mary seems unhappy since she left Mark."
"I don't really think so. I suspect she's just worried about having enough money."

After the speaker tells about something he or she believes, such as:

"I'm afraid the President is going to have problems with Congress this month."
"I imagine so, especially since the Vice-President upset the Republicans."

After the speaker asks a yes-or-no kind of question, such as:

"Do you think the rainy season's going to start this month?"
"I don't know, but I hope so. If it doesn't, the rice crops will be ruined."

NOTE: The opposite of "so" in this meaning is "not", as used in this example:

"Do you think the teacher will be upset because you lost your homework?"
"Well, I hope not ... but I'm afraid so!"

        B. In the meaning of "therefore" or "as a result", Thai people, after someone says, for example:

"Somsri is getting fat."

often say:

"You also." or "You, too."

This is not really wrong, and an English native speaker will understand what you mean clearly. However, it is not natural English, and you should practice saying:

"So are you!"
(getting fat)

The reason is that this will help you understand and use many other kinds of conversational sentences in English! (Note that "So are you" has exactly the same meaning as "You are, too", but is used just as often by native speakers.)

The way to make this kind of answer is to:

1. Use "So" as the first word of your sentence.
2. Next use the helping verb of the sentence.
3. And, last, use the personal pronoun that represents your subject, as in:

"So are (the helping verb) you (your subject)."

Finally, if the other speaker has used "not" in his or her sentence, and you wish to use "not" in comparing the thing or person he speaks of to something else, or someone else, you may use "neither", "nor" or "(helping verb) + not either", as in the conversation below:

"You were crying at the cinema last night."
"So were you."
"John wasn't crying."
"Neither was Jane."
"Nor was Wasana."
"Chai and Lek weren't either."

       C. In the meaning of "very... with the result that", Thai people should use "so" instead of "too" in a sentence like this one:

"I like you too much."

This sentence is wrong, because "too" used in this way means "more than appropriate", which is probably not what the speaker really wants to tell someone! Instead, he or she should say:

"I like you so much."
(which is a very nice thing to say, because the person hearing this knows the
words "so much" mean that "like" may lead to a good result!)

Actually, this may be a short way of saying something like:

"I like you so much that
I'm planning to invite you to dinner with my friends!"

Therefore, you probably don't want to say:

"The Englishman speaks too fast!
(because how can you know if he speaks faster than appropriate?)"

Instead, you should say:

"The Englishman speaks so fast (that)
I can't understand a word he says!"

This is not all there is to learn about "so", but if you learn to use what you have studied here in real conversation, the rest you have to learn will not be difficult!

4. "Some/any", "someone/anyone" (or "somebody/anybody"), "somewhere/anywhere".

        A. When it's not necessary (or desired) to discuss the exact number or amount of a thing. In order to speak English in a natural way (and understand native speakers when they do so), we usually say:

"Could you get me some water, please?"
(not, "Could you get me water, please?")

"Helen has gone to the market to get some potatoes."
(not "Helen has gone to the market to get potatoes."

"I've got some problems I need to speak with you about."
(not "I've got problems I need to speak with you about."

This is because the speaker wants to show that it is not important, or it is not known, how many or how much there is of the thing being talked about, except that, if there are more than one of a thing, he or she wishes to show that. Or, he may, in fact, know the number or amount and want to tell the other person only if he or she is interested, as in:

"Warapun was lucky. She found some durians for sale this morning!"
"Really? How many did she get?"
"She bought Four. One for herself and the children,
and three for us and the rest of the guests. Would you like some?"

NOTE: "Any" is used instead of "some":

       1. When your sentence contains the word "not", or a similar word, as in:

"I seem to have lost my new necktie! I can't find it anywhere."

       2. When you don't know if there is any of the thing, or if there is any person present, that you need to find out about, as in the second example below:

"Do you have some sugar I could borrow until I go shopping?"
(This first example, in speaking perhaps with your friend,
shows that you know, or believe, that there is sugar you can borrow.)

But if you don't know or believe that your friend has any sugar, you ask:

"Do you have any sugar I could borrow until I go shopping?"

Likewise, you could say:

"Does someone here have a map I could look at?"

But, if you feel that perhaps no one has a map you could borrow, you would say:

"Does anyone here have a map I could look at?"

       3. When you wish to discuss a person or thing, but no special one, as in:

"I seem to have lost my new necktie! Has anyone seen it?"

This is not all you need to know about "some/any", "someone/anyone", "somebody/anybody" or "somewhere/anywhere", but if you learn just this much well, the rest will be easier to learn!

ABOUT PRONUNCIATION.

1. "-ng" and "-nk". You must not go to the "bang"! "Bang" means a loud noise like that made by a gun or a bomb. Rather, you want to go to the "bank", in order to get some money to use! What is the difference in sound between these two words? The difference is that the sound of "nk" = the sound of "ng" + the sound of "k"!

Thus, "thing" (THIHNG) is a noun showing what we might talk about, and
"Think" (THIHNGK) is a verb showing what we must do before we can talk!

Remember this difference, and when you pronounce "-nk", make a very soft "kuh" sound at the end of the word (which sounds beautiful in English)!

2. "X". This sound really is very easy to make. Just say, "ehks"! (The "s" has the sound of "s" in "snake".) If "x" does not come at the beginning of a word, as in "x-ray (ehks-ray)" it has the same sound as "ks", as in:

"Tax" = "TAEKS".

3. "Q". This letter has the sound of "kw" unless it comes at the end of a word. Two examples are:

"Queen" = "KWEEN",
"Liquid" = "LIH-kwihd".

But if the "Q" appears at the end of a word, it is pronounced "k", as it these examples

"Cheque" = "CHEHK",
"Raquet" = "RAE-keht".

4. "Z". Do you remember from last week that the letter "V" has the same sound as "F", except that when you say "V" you don't let any air come out of your mouth? Well, "Z", also, is the same sound as "S", except that you don't let any air come out of your mouth! To practice, pronounce "hiss" (the sound that a snake makes), with an "S" sound at the end:

"HIHS".

Now say "his" (the word we use to show that a thing or person belongs to some man or male animal), with a "Z" sound at the end:

"HIHZ".

5. When to pronounce an "s" as "S", and when to pronounce it as "Z". If an "s" appears at the beginning or in the middle of a word, there is no rule to help you! You must listen to or ask an English native speaker, or you must check the pronunciation in an English-to-English dictionary. However, if "s" appears at the end of a noun to show more than one of a person or thing, or at the end of a verb to show that the subject of the sentence is "he", "she" or "it", you can always know if you should pronounce the "s" as "S" or as "Z"! But you need to learn the following easy rules.

       A. When you add an "s" to words ending in:

"-ce" (as in "face" = "faces").
"-ch" (as in "catch" = "catches").
"-se" (as in "lose" = "loses").
"-sh" (as in "dish" = "dishes").
"-ss" (as in "class" = "classes").
"x" (as in "fix" = "fixes").
"-xe" (as in "axe" = "axes").
or "-zz" (as in "buzz" = "buzzes").

The "S" always takes the sound of "Z"! And, if there is no "e" after "ch", "sh", "ss", "x" or "z", you must put one in before adding the "s" when writing the word.

This is because when you pronounce the word you must add one new syllable! EXPLANATION: A "syllable" (SIH-luh-buhl) is one complete sound. For example, "elephant" has three syllables (three complete sounds): EH-luh-funt, but "face" has only one syllable (one complete sound): FAYS. When you add "S" to any word ending in the letters shown above, you must always add a new syllable. For example:

"FAYS" ("face") becomes "FAY-sihz" ("faces").
"CAETCH" ("catch") becomes "KAET-chehz" ("catches").
"LOOZ" ("lose") becomes "LOO-zihz" ("loses").
"DIHSH" ("dish") becomes "DIH-shihz" ("dishes").
"KLAES" ("class") becomes "KLAE-sihz" ("classes").
"FIHKS" ("fix") becomes "FIHK-sihz" ("fixes").
"AEKS" ("axe") becomes "AEK-sihz" ("axes").
"BUHZ" ("buzz") becomes "BUH-zihz" ("buzzes").

       B. "S" added to words ending in the following sounds always has the sound of "S" and not "Z" (and there is no need to make a new syllable):

"-c" (as in "tic" = "tics" = TIHKS).
"-ck" (as in "stick" = "sticks" = STIHKS).
"-f" (as in "staff" = "staffs" = STAEFS)
"-nk" (as in "drink" = "drinks" = DRIHNKS).
"-ph" (as in "nymph" = "nymphs" = NIHMFS).
"-k" (as in "week" = "weeks" = WEKS).
"-p" (as in "shop" = "shops" = SHORPS).
"-que" ["k"] (as in "cheque" = "cheques" = CHEHKS).

       C. If you can remember all of the rules and word-endings given in "A" and"B" above, you probably will not need to remember that the following word endings, when you add "S", always give the "S" the sound of "Z":

"-a" (as in "toga" = "togas" = TOH-guhz).
"-ee" (as in "free" = "frees" = FREEZ).
"-b" (as in "rub" = "rubs" = RUHBZ).
"-d" (as in "bird" = "birds" = BUHRDZ).
"-g" (as in "dog" = "dogs" = DORGZ).
"-h" (as in "dough" = "doughs" = DOHZ).
"-th" (as in "path" = "paths" = PAETHZ, or PAHTHZ).
"-i" (as in "sari" = "saris" = SAH-reez).
"-l" (as in "fill" = "fills" = FIH-UHLZ!).
"-m" (as in "home" = "homes" = HOHMZ).
"-n" (as in "horn" = "horns" = HORNZ).
"-ng" (as in "ring" = "rings" = RIHNGZ).
"-o" (as in "go" = "goes" = GOHZ).
"-w" (as in "saw" = "saws" = SORZ).
"-y" (as in "tray" = "trays" = TRAYZ).

IS THIS ENOUGH TO LEARN FOR ONE WEEK?
If so,
LET'S PLAY A LEARNING GAME!

There are 10 questions. Print out this lesson, and write your answers in pen. Then click to check your work after you finish!

SCORING:

If you get 7-10 right answers:
You're a giraffe: good-looking, tall and able to see far ahead!

If you get 5-6 right answers:
You are a deer: very fast, but not able to sit still for very long!

If you get fewer than 5 right answers: You are a(n) ...
Never mind. You just need to study the lesson again!

INSERT THE CORRECT WORD.

1. If you agree with what I say, you might say: "I think _______."

2. If you don't agree that it's going to rain, you might say: "I ________ believe ________."

3. If you don't want the bad thing to happen that I am asking you about, you could say: "______ hope ________."

4. If you agree that you like this lesson as much as we do, you might say: "__________do I."

5. Should you say to your sweetheart: "I love you too much!"? ________. (Think why, or why not.)

6. If you need help, but you don't care who helps you, you could say: "Can _________ please tell me what to do?"

7. Does "pink" sound like "PIHNGK" or "PIHNG"? __________.

8. If you wanted to talk about several things, each called a "dish", would you call them "DIH-shihs " or "DIH-shihz "? ___________. How many syllables have you used? __________.

9. If you add "s" to "check", how many syllables will you have? __________. Will the "s" sound like "s", or like "z"? __________.

10. When you add "s" to "path", how many syllables do you have? __________. Does the "s" sound like "s", or like "z"? __________.

 

نوشته شده توسط راسم قربانی  | لینک ثابت |

گرامر 3 دوشنبه 4 مرداد1389 20:20

GENER

AL TIPS.

 

ABOUT GRAMMAR.

1.      In Lesson Four you learned that a sentence must have a subject, a verb and end punctuation. But what about other groups of words? These groups of words are important parts of sentences too! There are two kinds of groups:

     A.      Phrases (pronounced FRAY-zihz). These are groups of words that may have a word which could be a subject, or a group of words that may have a verb, but they cannot have both a word that could be a subject and a verb, too! The following groups of words are good examples of phrases:

"by the dining room table" - "HIT the rabbit" - "of the horse"
"or SOMETHING ELSE" - "injured by the falling rock"
"readily learned in just a few minutes".

     B.      Clauses (pronounced KLOR-zihz). There are two kinds of clauses.

           1.     Independent clauses (pronounced ihn-dih-PIHN-dihnt klor-zihz). These are groups of words that do have both a subject and a verb, and are a sentence such as:

"The animal TRAINER DRIVES a truck to work."

But independent clauses also can be joined with other independent clauses (by punctuation such as commas, etc.), so that there is end punctuation for one sentence only (and all independent clauses together count as just one sentence)! The following is a good example of two independent clauses making one sentence:

"John's FATHER TEACHES French; his MOTHER TEACHES English."

(These two independent clauses are joined by the semicolon after "French".)

           2.     Dependent clauses (pronounced dee-PIHN-dihnt klor-zihz). These are groups of words that have a subject and a verb, but, because of their connection (by conjunctions) to the real sentence, cannot be considered as a sentence by themselves. The following is a good example of a dependent clause:

"I sometimes like to go shopping on Saturdays,
THOUGH I DON'T ENJOY TRYING TO FIND A PARKING SPACE."

(The clause in capital letters is not a sentence or an independent clause because it starts with "though", and a sentence that reads: "Though I don't enjoy trying to find a parking space" has no meaning all by itself.)

2.      The seven kinds of words that can be used in sentences (of almost any language). These words are called the Parts of Speech (pronounced thuh PAHRTS suhv SPEECH). These kinds of words, with the kinds of information they tell us (which is given below the list) are:

NOUNS (pronounced NAONZ)
PRONOUNS (pronounced PROH-naonz) - VERBS (pronounced VERBZ)
PREPOSITIONS (pronounced preh-poh-ZIH-shuhnz)
CONJUNCTIONS(pronounced kuhn-JUHNG-shuhnz)
ADJECTIVES (pronounced AED-jehk-tihvz) - and
ADVERBS (pronounced AED-verbz).

     A.      Nouns. These are words that point to a person, animal or insect, place, thing, or thought -- or to a group of these. All the words below, for example, are nouns:

manager - Sam - kangaroo - school - Bangkok - bookcase - opinion
milk - workers - ants - ASEAN - The Nation - holidays.

These words usually tell us one of the following kinds of information:

WHO - WHAT - or WHICH.

     B.      Pronouns. These are words used in place of nouns (and sometimes working as adjectives) when we already know what person, animal or insect, place, thing, or thought (or group of these) the speaker or writer is talking about in his sentence. There are different kinds of pronouns (which we will learn about later on), but the following is a sample of some you will see often:

I - me - my - mine - myself - we - us - our - ours - ourselves
you - your - yours - yourselves - he - him - his - himself
she - her - hers - herself - it - its - itself
they - them - their - theirs - themselves - one - one's - oneself
some - this - that - these - those -
and which.

These words usually tell us one of the following kinds of information:

WHO - WHAT - WHICH - or WHOSE.

     C.      Verbs. These are the words of a sentence that show the actions of, or introduce more information about, the subject of the sentence. There are three basic kinds of verbs, and a few special names for them, which we use in discussing their different duties in a sentence.

           1.      Main verbs (pronounced MAYN verbz). These are the verbs of sentences and clauses that point to actions by the persons, animals or insects, things or thoughts which are shown by the subject of the sentence, or that tell some information about him, her, them or it after a linking verb (which you will find out about in 1.b, below). There are two important kinds of main verb, as shown below:

                 a.      Action verbs (pronounced AEK-shuhn verbz). These are main verbs that show actions done by things, people, animals, insects or the minds of people, animals or insects. For example:

"the sun RISES" - "the ant BITES" - "the dog BARKS"
"the teacher THINKS" - "my wife FEELS" - "the tables FALL".

                 b.     Linking verbs (pronounced LIHNG-kihng verbz). These are main verbs that show no action, but come before some word or words that give us more information about the sentence subject, as in the following examples:

"Robert IS an English teacher."
"Mr. Kramer LOOKS very old in this photograph."
"By 6.00 p.m., most workers GROW very tired."

           2.     Helping verbs.

                a.      These are verbs used to show a special verb tense, as in these examples:

"My boss HAS worked hard all day."
"The children ARE playing a new kind of American football."

                b.      Helping verbs also are verbs used to make the main verb give us more complete information. (These verbs are called MODALS, pronounced MOH-duhlz, and we will learn more about these later on.) For example, all of the sentences below have the same subject, the same direct object, the same adverbial phrase ("on Sunday") and the same main verb "do", but each sentence has a completely different meaning!

"I WILL do my homework on Sunday."
"I MIGHT do my homework on Sunday."
"I COULD do my homework on Sunday."
"I SHOULD do my homework on Sunday."

                 c.      Helping verbs also can be a form of the verb "do" in a question, with the word "not", or in a statement to make the meaning of the main verb stronger, as in these sentences:

"DOES your manager LET you take a coffee break sometimes?"
"I DO not LIKE having to work on national holidays!"
"Doing homework DOES TAKE longer than reading a newspaper!"

      4.     Prepositions. These are words like "in", "on", "at", "over", etc., which tell how one part of what we are talking about in the sentence joins with another part, as in the following examples:

"My telephone sits ON a small table NEXT TO the bed."
"We are IN Bangkok ON holiday UNTIL next Friday."

These words usually tell us one of the following kinds of information:

WHERE - HOW - WHEN - HOW LONG - or WHY.

      5.      Conjunctions. These are words such as "or", "because", "so", "and", "but", etc., that join one part of a sentence to another part of that sentence, as in the following examples:

"We must arrive on time, OR we will not get a seat to watch the concert."
"I like learning new languages BECAUSE I am a friendly person."
"We were not able to get a taxi to the office, SO we took a bus."
"Too much work makes me feel tired AND hungry."
"I asked my friend for some sugar, BUT he didn't have any."

These words usually tell us one of the following kinds of information:

WHERE - WHEN - HOW - HOW LONG - or WHY.

      6.     Adjectives. These are words that give us more information about the person, animal or insect, thing or thought pointed to by a noun or pronoun, as in these examples:

"HEALTHY children are HAPPY children."
"Jack is ANGRY with me for eating HIS sandwich at lunchtime."
"THE TALL boy killed and cooked A chicken for OUR dinner."

These words usually tell us one of the following kinds of information:

WHICH - WHOSE - HOW MANY - HOW MUCH
HOW - WHAT KIND
(OF).

      7.      Adverbs. These words tell us information that is more complete than the following parts of speech can tell us all by themselves:

VERBS - ADJECTIVES - OTHER ADVERBS.

Here are some sample sentences:

"The dog ran SLOWLY away from the hungry chicken."
("Slowly" tells us more information about the verb "ran".)

"Mary does VERY good work when she wants to."
("Very" tells us more information about the adjective "good".)

"Some of the students did RATHER poorly on their exams."
("Rather"tells us more information about the adverb "poorly".)

These words usually tell us one of the following kinds of information:

WHEN - WHERE - HOW - WHY - HOW LONG - HOW OFTEN
HOW FAR -
or UP TO WHAT POINT (to what extent, or limit).

ABOUT PRONUNCIATION.

1.      In an English sentence, the STRESS TONE of NOUNS, most MAIN VERBS, most ADJECTIVES, and all ADVERBS is a HIGH TONE, as in these examples:

TOM - MI-chael - BUIL-ding - SEE - VI-sit - PRET-ty
SLOW-ly - DIF-fi-cult - O-ften.

We write the HIGH TONE with UPPERCASE LETTERS, the LOW TONE with LOWER CASE LETTERS and the MIDDLE TONE with ITALIC LOWER CASE LETTERS. But when you write MIDDLE TONES, you should write them with LOWER CASE LETTERS and then underline them, as in the following example:

WE WRITE: DIF-fi-cult, but
YOU WRITE: DIF-fi-cult.

2.      The adjectives "a", "an" and "the" have only low tones, so we write them like this:

an AIR-plane
a BIG BUIL-ding
the FIRST PER-son.

3.      The STRESS TONE in HELPING VERBS, LINKING VERBS, MODALS, PRONOUNS, PREPOSITIONS and CONJUNCTIONS is a MIDDLE TONE, as in these examples:

"Does JOHN HAVE a PEN?" (helping verb)
"Dan-IELLE is a FRENCH LAW-yer." (linking verb)
"We ought to ar-RIVE EAR-ly." (the modal "ought to")
"They GAVE the DOG its DIN-ner." (the pronouns "they" and "its")
"MAT-thew ar-RIVED in BANG-kok on FRI-day."
(the prepositions "in" and "on")
"JO-seph WORKS HARD be-cause he WANTS to be suc-CESS-ful."
(the conjunction "because").

4.      We pronounce the STRESS TONE of QUESTION WORDS with a MIDDLE TONE, and the last syllable of QUESTION WORDS with a FALLING TONE (as in the Thai word for "no" = Mai). Below are the QUESTION WORDS of English, and how to pronounce them:

who - what - when - where - how - why - which -
how m
uch - how ma-ny - how long - how o-ften.

5.      In English the last syllable (complete sound) in the last word of almost all STATEMENT SENTENCES (and INFORMATION QUESTIONS starting with QUESTION WORDS) is pronounced with a FALLING TONE,as in these examples:

"I will re-TURN from NEW YORK CI-ty NEXT MON-day ."
"How ma-ny PEO-ple WORK for your COM-pa-ny?"

6.      If we call out to someone, or if we expect our listener to answer "Yes" or "No" to a question, we use a RISING TONE (as in the Thai word "many" = laI) on the last syllable of the name, or of the question, as in the following examples:

"joHN, could I SPEAK to you for a SE-coND?"

QUESTION: "Will you re-TURN from NEW YORK CI-ty NEXT MON-dAY?"
ANSWER: "YES. If my FLIGHT is NOT LATE, I will."

7.      Thai names. You learned in Lesson Four that it is not polite to pronounce an English name in the "Thai way" if you are speaking English, but it is okay to do that when you're speaking Thai. In the same way, English native speakers will try very hard (if they are polite) to pronounce Thai names in the "Thai way" when they are speaking Thai. But they must change this pronunciation a little bit, when they are speaking English! The following two sentences (using common Thai names) are good examples of this:

"KHUN Thi-thi-mA, COME HERE, PLEASE!"

"Have you SEEN KHUN Jin-ta-nAH?"

8.      English words used in sentences are not always pronounced in the way we have shown you above! Sometimes, when we are excited, or when we wish to stress a word important to us, we pronounce the words of our sentences in a different way (just as you also do in the Thai language) -- but if you never pronounce English sentences in a way different from what we show you here, you will have no problem -- and you will be speaking clearly in an English native speaker way!

9.      We do not plan to teach you everything we know about how to pronounce English words in sentences! For example, adjectives and adverbs both use rising tones sometimes, and falling tones sometimes, on one of their syllables. But you don't need to know how to do this, because you will learn that in a natural way when you speak with foreigners -- and if we teach you too much, you might get confused and be afraid to speak!

In the weeks to come, however, we will be teaching you many more very important lessons about how to pronounce English words. And . . .

Very soon you will learn exactly how to pronounce
all
of the vowels and all of the consonants in English!

At the same time,

You must learn to look up English words you are learning
in an English-to-English dictionary
in order to find sample words with the same sounds
as the consonants and vowels of
those words
-- and where the syllables begin and end:

Because, except for words you learn in these lessons,
you will have to learn about words from a dictionary
in order to use all of what you learn here
(and if you use an English-to-Thai dictionary,
you will very often get the wrong information)!

But what you learn here about how to pronounce sentences will always be correct, and won't change!

IS THIS ENOUGH TO LEARN FOR ONE WEEK?
If so,
LET'S PLAY A LEARNING GAME!

There are 10 questions, but 44 points to be scored. Print out this lesson, and write your answers in pen. Then click to check your work after you finish!

SCORING:

If you get 32 - 44 right answers:
You are an eagle: powerful and flying high!

If you get 20 - 31 right answers:
You are a rabbit: very fast and loved by many!

If you get 10 - 19 right answers:
You are a kitten: very cute, but you need to learn a lot fast!

If you get fewer that 10 right answers: You are a(an) . . .
Never mind! You just need to study the lesson one more time!

INSERT THE CORRECT ANSWER.

1.

2 points. Groups of words that do not have both a verb and a word that could be the subject are called ___________________. The way to spell this word, only to pronounce it clearly, is: _____________________________.

2.

6 points. Groups of words that have both a main verb and a subject are called _______________________, and the way to spell this word, only to pronounce it clearly, is: __________________________. Groups of words like this which also are sentences, or parts of sentences that have meaning all by themselves, are called ______________________ _____________________, which is spelled, only to pronounce it clearly, as: _____________________________ _____________________. If these groups of words do not have meaning all by themselves, they are called __________________________ _______________________, which is pronounced: __________________________ _____________________.

3.

6 points. The seven parts of speech are nouns, _________________, __________________, __________________________, ___________________________, _______________________ and _______________________.

4.

2 points. The two most common kinds of main verbs are ___________________ verbs and ______________________ verbs (which tell us more information about the subject).

5.

3 points. Give an example from your lesson of a helping verb used to show a special verb tense: ______________ Give an example from your lesson of a helping verb used to make the main verb give us more information: ____________________. This type of helping verb is called a ______________________.

6.

3 points. Adverbs give us information that is more complete than what is shown by some __________________, _________________________ or other ____________________ in our sentence.

7.

6 points. Tell the part of speech (not the sentence duty) of each word in the following sentence: "I live on the second floor." "I" is a ____________________. "Live" is a _______________ _______________. "On" is a _________________________. "The" is an ___________________________. "Second" is an ___________________________. "Floor" is a ___________________________.

8.

7 points. Write this sentence in a new way, to show how to pronounce every word in it:
"I live on the second floor." "_______________________________________________."
To show
(by the way you pronounce) that "floor" is the last syllable of the sentence, you should write: ________________.

9.

7 points. The stress tones of nouns, main verbs, most adjectives and all adverbs are __________ _________________, but the stress tones of _______________ __________, _________________ _______________, _________________, ___________________, __________________________ and ___________________________ are middle tones.

10.

2 points. If we ask an information question or make a statement type of sentence, we should use a __________________ tone on the last syllable of our sentence. If we ask a question that we want our listener to answer "Yes" or "No", or if we call someone's name, we use a _________________ tone on the last syllable.

LESSON FOUR

 

ABOUT GRAMMAR.

1.      Sentences. To make sure that you understand some important information we will teach you in this lesson, it's necessary to talk just a little bit about all the important parts of English language sentences and how these sentences are made. Often, when we ask a student what the three necessary parts of an English language sentence are, he or she says, "A subject, a verb and a direct object". This is not bad! However, a sentence does not have to have a direct object.

Suppose, for example, that your sister decides she no longer wants to work for her company. She may then go to her boss, and say -- if she's speaking English:

"I QUIT!"
or
"I RESIGN!"

Both of these ways of showing that she wants to stop working for that company are sentences, and neither one contains a direct object!

The three parts that a sentence needs, therefore, are:

A SUBJECT - A VERB - AND END PUNCTUATION!

"End punctuation" just means (when we write):

A FULL STOP (the American period) - A QUESTION MARK -
or AN EXCLAMATION POINT (like that in "I quit!").

And, when we speak, it means A SOUND TO LET THE LISTENER KNOW OUR SENTENCE IS FINISHED. (We will learn how this is done later on.)

Usually, the subject of a sentence comes before the verb, as in:
"The STATUE OF LIBERTY (the subject) is (the verb) in New York."

But if the sentence is a question, there must be a verb before the subject, as in:

"IS (a verb) the STATUE OF LIBERTY (the subject) in New York?"

      If the verb is some form of "be", we use the same verb in both a regular sentence and in a question, as in the example above (the verb "is"). However, the form of "be" will not always be the same, as in this example:

REGULAR SENTENCE: "I AM going to go see John this Saturday."
QUESTION: "ARE you going to go see John this Saturday?"

But if the verb is not some form of "be", we use the helping verb in the regular sentence also in our question, as in:

REGULAR SENTENCE: "I WILL try to improve my grades next term."
QUESTION: "WILL you try to improve your grades next term?"
(Note that "I" changes to "you" and "my" changes to "your"
because when you ask this kind of question YOU ARE NOT THE SAME
PERSON
as the one who makes the "regular sentence".
)

And if the verb is not some form of "be", and the "regular sentence" does not use a helping verb, we use a form of "Do" in our question:

REGULAR SENTENCE: "Porntip WORKS in a department store."
QUESTION: "DOES (the helping verb) Porntip WORK in a department store?"
("DOES" is the "do" form used with the subject "she", and Porntip is a woman.)

NOTE: The real name for what we call here a "regular sentence" is "STATEMENT". This means a sentence that gives information (but does not ask for it). So, from now on we will call this kind of sentence a "statement", not a "regular sentence".

2.     Objects.

      A.     Direct Objects. Direct objects are nouns or personal pronouns that name the person, thing or animal that receives the action told by the verb in a sentence, as in this example:

"Doctor Prasert is teaching HIS STUDENTS about mathematics."

"His students" are receiving the action "is teaching". Therefore, "his students" is the DIRECT OBJECT in the sentence. Note that the DIRECT OBJECT comes after the verb of the sentence.

      B.     Indirect Objects. The indirect object of a sentence is the noun or personal pronoun that names the person, thing or animal that receives the DIRECT OBJECT of the sentence (or some important part of it), as in the following example:

"The staff (the subject) gave (the verb) SALLY (the INDIRECT OBJECT)
a beautiful `going-away' PRESENT (the DIRECT OBJECT)."

Note that the preposition "TO" is often used before the INDIRECT OBJECT, and that this usage is considered to be better by British English speakers, as in the following example:

"The staff gave a beautiful `going-away' PRESENT TO SALLY."

But both sentences are correct. If you have learned American English, you might not use "TO" very often, and if you have learned British English, you might use "TO" as often as possible. (Note that if "TO" is used, the DIRECT OBJECT comes into the sentence before the INDIRECT OBJECT. The preposition "for" often is used in this way, too, when it points to something made for someone.)

      C.      If an OBJECT is in a personal pronoun form. Personal pronouns have both a subject form and an object form. This means that the "subject form" is used as the subject of a sentence, and the "object form" is used as the object of a sentence, as in the following example:

"The staff gave a beautiful `going-away' PRESENT
to HER
(the INDIRECT OBJECT personal pronoun, object form)."

NOTE: The object forms of the different personal pronouns are as follows:

me (I) - us (we) - you (you) - him (he) - her (she) - it (it) - them (they).

You need to MEMORIZE THESE FORMS, so you can use them immediately without having to think too much!

3.      Another "little word": the preposition "of".

     A.      "Of" + (noun) to show that something or someone owns, or has, or is part of, someone or something else, as in these examples:

1. "The words OF this lesson all need to be learned well."
2. "Wannee is the sister OF my wife's best friend."

NOTE: Whenever possible we use apostrophe + s to show this meaning, as in:

"This is Benjawan'S computer."

But we usually don't use apostrophe + s with a noun that names a thing. Thus, the following sentence is incorrect:

"We read all of the newspaper'S pages."

We must say:

"We read all of the pages OF the newspaper."

And, if there are a lot of words needed in order to show who or what belongs to, or is owned by, somebody, apostrophe + s should not be used. Therefore, the following sentence is not a good one:

"Wannee is my wife'S best friend'S sister."
(But the sentence in A.2 above is correct.)

     B.      "Of" + another word, or a group of words, which also shows that someone or something owns, or has, or is part of, someone or something else, as in the examples below. (Note that, in this case, the sentence is about one or more from a group of such things.)

1. "I went downtown with a friend OF MINE"
(This means "one from my group of friends", to show that I have more than one!)

2. "`Never mind' is a favorite expression OF HIS."
(one of other expressions that he has)

3. "This is a painting OF Frank'S."
(one of other paintings that Frank owns or has done himself)

      C.      In the meaning "regarding" or "upon considering" after an adjective, as in this example:

"He was Afraid OF his brothers."

Some other adjectives followed by "OF" in this meaning include:

ashamed - convinced - critical - jealous - proud - scared -
suspicious - terrified - tired.

Why don't you make some sentences of your own, using these words?

1.      "Pichet was _____________ _____ being late for work today."

2.      "The boss is very ____________ _____ my work when I make mistakes."

3.      "Linda is very ___________ _____ her husband, and won't let another woman get near him."

      D.      Before a name or personal pronoun, to point to the one whom the adjective describes, as in this example:

"It was stupid OF Mr. Brown to leave the office door unlocked."
(Mr. Brown is the one who was stupid.)

Other adjectives used in this way include:

brave - careless - clever - generous - good - intelligent - kind - nice -
polite - sensible - silly - thoughtful - unkind - unreasonable - wrong.

Why don't you practice making some sentences of your own, using these words?

1.      "It was _________ _____ you to help me with my homework last night."

2.      "It was ______________ _____ Randy to hold the door open for me when I came back with those packages."

3.      "It was ___________ _____ Matthew to go into the burning house to save our children."

      E.      In the meaning "made of" or "consisting of", as in these examples:

1. "A wall OF glass covers the front of our office."
2. "Songpon had a feeling OF worry about what would happen next."

      F.      "OF" + (noun) to show who caused the action told about in the words before "OF", as in this example:

"After an auto accident, both drivers should await the arrival OF the police."
(The "police" are the people who will arrive.)

      4.      Are you learning anything? Yes, you are! We'll show you how much now! Do you remember the sentence earlier in our lesson, in which the parents of two boys asked in English about our charges for language training? Here's that sentence again:

"How much you will charge for teach English my two boys?"

We think you have learned enough now to correct this sentence. First, let's look at this part:

"How much you will charge . . ."

You have learned that in a question the helping verb must come before the subject, so we must change this part of the sentence to read:

"How much WILL you charge . . ."

Next, you have learned that "for" is a preposition, and that a simple verb that comes after it must add "-ing". So we will change "for teach" to "for teaching", as follows:

"How much you will charge for teaching . . ."

This leaves:

". . . TEACHING English my two boys?"

In this part of the sentence, is there a verb form? Yes! "Teaching".

Is there a DIRECT OBJECT? Yes! "English" receives the action of "teaching"!

Is there an INDIRECT OBJECT? Yes! "My two boys" receives the DIRECT OBJECT "English".

Should there be a "TO" before the INDIRECT OBJECT? Yes, because the DIRECT OBJECT comes into the sentence before it does!

So now we know how to make this sentence completely correct, as follows:

"How much will you charge for teaching English TO my two boys?"

NOTE: Another way of forming this sentence is to use the word "TO" before "teach", instead of changing "teach" to "teaching" (for use with the preposition "for"). This is because "TO" in this case is not a preposition, but the word that we use before simple verbs quite often. Thus, the sentence could read:

"How much will you charge TO teach English to my two boys?"

But both ways are correct, and you already have learned a lot from these lessons!

ABOUT PRONUNCIATION.

1.      It's a bad idea to spell English words with thai letters! The reason is that the Thai spelling system will not let you show (and make) the correct sounds of the letters (and the vowel sounds) of these words.

You already have seen what happens when words like the ones below are spelled in Thai:

Germany - hygiene - Gillette - bank.

Another reason that you should not spell English words in thai is that the stress tones (the highest sounds) of the words usually change! Look, for example, at the correct way to pronounce the Western names shown below:

Gary = GEH-ree. Peter = PEE-tuhr.
Hugo = HIW-goh. Jason = JAY-suhn.

But, because these words have been spelled with Thai letters (or because you have spelled them that way in your head), the following is the way you really pronounce these names!

gae-REE = Gary. pee-TDUH = Peter.
hiw-GOH = Hugo. jay-SUHN = Jason.

This is not cute. It's okay, of course, to say someone's name incorrectly by accident. It's also okay to say a name incorrectly when you're speaking Thai with other Thai people. But . . .

IT'S VERY RUDE (impolite)
TO SAY SOMEONE'S NAME INCORRECTLY
WHEN YOU ARE SPEAKING TO HIM --
JUST BECAUSE YOU ARE THAI,
AND BECAUSE YOU THINK YOU CAN "IMPROVE"
ON THE WAY HE SAYS HIS OWN NAME!

So, forget how to spell English words in Thai, and try hard to make the same English sounds that an English native speaker makes.

Will you promise? Because, if you will, what we will teach you next will help you to improve English pronunciation by at least 1,000% in a very short time!

2.      In Part 3 below, we will begin to show you how to pronounce all English words correctly -- and we will show you how to pronounce sentences correctly, too! First, however, you need to learn the meanings of just a few new words so that you will understand us when we explain how to do this.

     A.      VOWELS (pronounced VAE-wuhlz). The vowels in English are:

A - E - I - O - U - and (sometimes) W or Y.

     B.      All other English letters are called CONSONANTS (pronounced KORN-SUH-nuhnts).

     C.      UPPER CASE LETTERS (pronounced UHP-puhr-kays leh-tuhrz). These are sometimes called "big letters" or "capital letters", and look like this:

BOOK.

     D.      LOWER CASE LETTERS (pronounced LOH-wuhr-kays leh-tuhrz). These are sometimes called "little letters", and look like this:

book.

     E.      SYLLABLES (pronounced SIH-luh-buhlz). You have seen this word in our lessons already. It means "complete sounds". For example, "elephant" has three syllables (three complete sounds), being:

EH-luh-fuhnt.

     F.      HYPHENS (pronounced HAI-fihnz). These are the short lines we type between syllables. For example, in spelling the word "EH-luh-fuhnt" in a way that will help you to pronounce it correctly, we use a HYPHEN after "EH" and another HYPHEN after "luh".

     G.      ITALICS (pronounced ih-TAE-lihks). These are letters typed (for some special reason) so that they are not straight, as in the word below:

book.

NOTE: When you write a word that we have typed in ITALICS, you should not try to write in ITALICS also, but should underline the part that we have typed in ITALICS, as in the following example:

If we type "italics" as "ih-TAE-lihks",
you should write it: "ih-TAE-lihks"
(unless you are using a typewriter or computer).

     H.      TONES (pronounced TOHNZ). These are the LEVELS of sounds and the KINDS of sounds that we use in pronouncing any word (in any language). In the Thai language, for example, there is the LOW TONE, as in "frog" (gohp!), the MIDDLE TONE, as in "fall" (lohng!), the HIGH TONE, as in "water" (NAHM), the RISING TONE (going from a lower level to the high level), as in "get well" (hAI) and the FALLING TONE (going from the high level to a lower level), as in "no" (Mai).

     I.      THE STRESS TONE (pronounced thuh STREHS tohn). The STRESS TONE of an English word is about the same as the HIGH TONE of a Thai word (such as in khrah!ng= time or times).

3.      How to pronounce all of the syllables in all English words. One of the biggest problems Thai people have in pronouncing an English word correctly -- after they have learned which syllable of the word has the STRESS TONE -- is how to pronounce the other syllables in the word! Here is how to do it:

     A.      Remember these words: "WATER FALLS (ON THE) FROG"! This means:

When the STRESS TONE is on the first SYLLABLE
of a word, it is a HIGH TONE

(as in the Thai word "NAHM" = water),
the next SYLLABLE is a MIDDLE TONE
(as in the Thai word "lohng!" = fall)
and the third SYLLABLE is a LOW TONE
(as in the Thai word "gohp!" = frog).

Here is an example. In the English word "possible", you will find out that there are three SYLLABLES. You also will find out that the STRESS TONE is on the "pos" part of the word.

So "pos" is like the HIGH TONE of "NAHM".
"si"
is like the MIDDLE TONE of "lohng!".
And "ble" is like the LOW TONE of "gohp!".

     B.      When we spell an English word in a special way to help you pronounce it correctly, we will follow these rules:

           1.      We will use UPPER CASE LETTERS to spell the STRESS TONE (the HIGH TONE), like this:

POS-,

           2.      We will use ITALICS to spell the MIDDLE TONE, like this:

si-, and

           3.      We will use LOWER CASE LETTERS to spell the LOW TONE, like this:

ble.

So the complete word now looks like this:

POS-si-ble.

However, next week you will learn how we also will change the spelling of the word a little bit, to help you pronounce all of the VOWELS and all of the CONSONANTS correctly too!

      C.      If the STRESS TONE of a word is not on the first SYLLABLE, then all SYLLABLES before the STRESS TONE are MIDDLE TONES, as in these examples:

unlikely = un-LIKE-ly.
disadvantage = dis-ad-VAN-tage.

And if there is no SYLLABLE after the STRESS TONE, that is all right, as in the example below!

advanced = ad-VANCED.

IS THIS ENOUGH TO LEARN FOR ONE WEEK?
If so,
LET'S PLAY A LEARNING GAME!

There are 10 questions. Print out this lesson, and write your answers in pen. Then click to check your work after you finish!

NOTE: There is one free bonus point in this game!

SCORING:

If you get 7 - 11 right answers:
You are a wealthy business person (or will be one day)!

If you get 4 - 6 right answers:
You are a good supervisor: very important to your company!

If you get 2 - 3 right answers:
You are a good worker, and study hard to improve in everything you so.

If you get fewer than 2 right answers: You are a(an) ...
Never mind. You just need to study the lesson again!

INSERT THE CORRECT ANSWER.

1.

In order to learn English well, a person has to __________ as often as possible.

2.

The three necessary parts of an English sentence are a ____________, a ____________ and _______ _____________________.

3.

End punctuation (when we write) is a ________ ________, a ______________ _______or an ____________________ point. It also is a __________ we make (when we speak) to let our listener know that our sentence is finished.

4.

Direct objects are words that tell who or what receives the __________ told by the verb, and indirect objects tell who or what receives the ___________ ___________. If the direct object comes into the sentence before the indirect object, the word "_____" (or sometimes another preposition such as "for") must be used before the indirect object.

5.

Tell if the following sentence is a good one: "All the building's windows are broken." _____.
Make it correct: "______________________________________________________."

6.

Make the following sentence show that Mark is only one of the man's friends:
"Mark is ______ friend ______ his."

7.

"I am ________________ of myself for not helping my mother wash clothes this morning."
See: ABOUT GRAMMAR, 3C.)

8.

"It was ______________ of you to beat Mr. Brown at chess."
(See: ABOUT GRAMMAR, 3D.)

9.

Make the following sentence correct:
"How much the doctor will charge for give the new kind of medicine my father?" "_________________________________________________________________________
_______________________?"

Special! One point free bonus:
Write your sentence again without using a preposition with the indirect object.
"_________________________________________________________________________
__________________________."

4.

The stress tone of English is about the same as the ________ ________ of Thai. An easy way for Thai people to remember how to pronounce all the syllables of an English word is to remember the sentence:
"__________ __________ (on the) __________."

 

 

ABOUT GRAMMAR.

1. "It" can refer to a person, indirectly! In English, "it" must never, of course, be used to refer to a person directly. You must not say, for example:

"Our maid is not working today. It has a broken heart."

But you can use "it" to identify who someone is. Suppose, for example, a husband and wife are both in the kitchen of their home when the doorbell rings. The husband goes and answers the door, and after a while returns to the kitchen.

The wife then asks, "Who was it?", and the husband says,
"It was George, our neighbor. He asked to borrow my saw."

2. "They" and "them", "their" and "theirs" are not only used to refer to people. They also are the only words that can be used to refer to things or animals, as in these examples:

"I study these lessons every week.
They are quite useful and their tips sometimes surprise me."

"Both of these dogs belong to Sally. They eat a lot of bones, but they are not
allowed to bother the bowl I set down for the cats. That's theirs!"

3. "He/him/his" and "she/her/hers" are normally used by English native speakers to refer to some animal instead of "It"! It is not wrong to use "it", of course, especially if you are discussing an animal you haven't seen, or don't know much information about. For example,

John tells Sue: "I found a snake in my garden this morning!"
Sue exclaims: "Yech! Did you kill it?"

But if you know the sex of an animal, you should use the correct personal pronoun:

"Wilbur is my favorite goldfish. He's four years old."
(" Wilbur" is a man's name.)

And if you meet the animal, it's friendly to guess the sex of it, as in this example:

Sue: "This is my mom's pet rabbit."
John: "She's beautiful!"
Sue: "It's a male rabbit, actually.
He's the father of over 200 babies sold to pet shops."

(Note that "It" as used here does refer to the animal rabbit, because John has guessed its sex incorrectly. But John hasn't lost any face in doing so, and he was able to find out the animal's sex without asking! )

4. "Never" means "not at all" or "not at any time". It does not mean "never before until now (or then)". For example, when Bill says,

"I never go fishing",

this means that these days (for some reason) he does not go fishing at all, or at any time. The truth is, however, that when he was a young man he used to go fishing almost every day! (This writer can tell you that, because he knows Bill very well!) If you want, really, to show "never before until now/ then", you must use the PERFECT TENSE ! It's the only way -- as in:

"I have never seen snow."
You also could say: "I have NOT seen snow",

but NEVER makes the meaning stronger by adding "at all" or "at any time" to the word NOT.

5. In the same way, "ever" does not mean "before"; it means "at some time" or "sometimes" or "always", depending on how you use it. In the following question, for example,

"Have you ever water-skied?":

It is the present perfect verbs have + water-skied that, together, mean "before"! You could ask,

"Have you water-skied?",

and give exactly the same meaning. But ever makes the meaning stronger (and clearer, because in this sentence it means "at some time")!

6. "Interested" and "interesting". Teachers always smile when a student learning English as a foreign language says,

"I am very interesting."
(especially if he or she is boring !)

This is because an adjective ending in "ing" (or, in other words, a verb + ing, or a present participle) refers to WHAT THE SPEAKER IS TALKING ABOUT AND HOW HE FEELS ABOUT IT, not (usually) himself; and an adjective ending in "ed" (or, in other words, a verb-3, or past participle) REFERS TO HIMSELF. Therefore, we say:

"I am very excited," (the speaker referring to himself or herself), or
"This game is boring."
(referring to what he is talking about, which is the "game", and how he feels about it.)

ABOUT PRONUNCIATION.

1. "V" does not have the sound of vor vaen ("w"); it has the sound of "F " -- but when you say it, Don't let any air come out of your mouth! To practice, hold a sheet of paper loosely in front of your mouth and say,

" wife".

This blows the paper back! Now, hold up the paper again and say,

"wives"
(being careful not to let any air out when you pronounce "v").

This time you did not blow the paper back, and you pronounced "v " correctly! Be careful in pronouncing other words spelled with a "V".

Do not say: wee-dee-oh.
Say: VIH-dee-oh.

"Video" is an English word, after all !

2. The "hard G" sound as in "go". This "G" is not the same sound as kor kai (chicken)! This is because kor kai also makes the sound of kh (kor khwai, buffalo) as in kite, after the "hard G" sound has been made.

The result is, when you pronounce "dog",
you say, "dawk" (as in flower)!

This is wrong.

Take out the kor khwai sound at the end
and say, "dog"
(ending the sound deep in your throat).

3. The "soft G or J" sound as in "George" or "joy". In English, this letter never takes the sound of "Y"!

In pronouncing Germany, Gillette or hygiene:

Always say: JUHR -muh-nee.
Do not say: yuhr-muh-nee.

Say: jih-LEHT, not yee-leht.
Say: HAI-jeen, not hai-yeen.

Of course, when you're speaking Thai you will pronounce these words the Thai way! But when you are speaking English, you must pronounce them the English way. If you don't, you won't understand an English native speaker when he pronounces these words, and he may very well not understand you, when you pronounce them in the Thai way to him!

IS THIS ENOUGH TO LEARN FOR ONE WEEK?
If so,
LET'S PLAY A LEARNING GAME!

There are 10 questions. You can print out this lesson and write your answers in pen, or simply write your answers on a sheet of paper. When you are through, click on the "ANSWER" box below to see the correct answers.

SCORING:

If you get 7-10 right answers:
You're a bird: beautiful, smart and free!

If you get 5-6 right answers:
You are a buffalo: a little slow, but able to work hard anyway!

If you get fewer than 5 right answers: You are a(n) . . .
Never mind. You just need to study the lesson again!

Insert the correct word.

1. I don't like these pencils! ___________ tips break off too easily.

2. My dog Lisa likes to sleep on my bed when I'm out. _________ hair rubs off onto the sheets and pillow cases, and everywhere else!

3. Somchai's little boy cries all the time. ________ never gets any sleep!

4. _______'s not Malee who's saying those bad things about you. ______'s your wife Suporn!

5. If one of your friends tells you, "Montana never obeys her mother. She's very spoiled!" -- Does this mean that Montana has never obeyed her mother in the past? ________

6. Read these sentences: "Donna's beautiful. I ever saw her on the beach in Pattaya." Is "ever" used correctly? _______. (If you don't think so, see if you can explain why.)

7. Would you respect your English teacher a lot if, after a long day of work, he said, "Wow! I'm tiring!"? __________. (If not, ask yourself why.)

8. Should you say wai-oh-leen or vai-oh-LIHN? _________________.

9. Is one kind of bird called a HAWK, or a HOG? A ____________.

10. Lek wears blue jeans. Should she call them "YEENS" or "JEENS "? ______________.

 

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بخش گرامر 1 دوشنبه 4 مرداد1389 20:18

Adjective Order

Adjectives can be used to describe opinion, size, age, shape, colour, material, origin and purpose. We can use adjectives together to give a detailed description of something. Adjectives that express opinions usually come before all others.

For example:

"The big, blue bag.".

When we group adjectives together there is a general rule for the position of each type adjective, these are:-

Position

1st*

2nd*

3rd

4th

5th

6th

7th

8th

 

Opinion

Size

Age

Shape

Colour

Material

Origin

Purpose

 

Nice

Small

Old

Square

Black

Plastic

British

Racing

 

Ugly

Big

New

Circular

Blue

Cotton

American

Running

This is just a guide as you wouldn't normally see so many adjectives in one description.

Collective / Group Nouns

A collective noun is a noun that is singular in form but refers to a group of people or things.

Sometimes they refer to a group of specific things:-

For example:-

Tables, chairs, cupboards etc. are grouped under the collective noun furniture.
Plates, saucers, cups and bowls are grouped under the collective noun crockery.

These collective nouns are often uncountable.

Sometimes they are more general:-

For example:-

Groups of people - army, audience, band, choir, class, committee, crew, family, gang, jury, orchestra, police, staff, team, trio

Groups of animals - colony, flock, herd, pack, pod, school, swarm

Groups of things - bunch, bundle, clump, pair, set, stack

When such a group is considered as a single unit, the collective noun is used with a singular verb and singular pronouns.

For example - The committee has reached its decision.

But when the focus is on the individual members of the group, British English uses a plural verb and plural pronouns.

For example - "The committee have been arguing all morning." This is the same as saying "The people in the committe have been ...."

How to build a powerful and impressive vocabulary

You’ll easily build a powerful and impressive vocabulary that:

  • Grants you instant respect and credibility - Start learning your Ultimate Words and you’ll notice that people will start to pay attention to you - and begin to follow your lead.
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  • Improves your communication - No more letting your career and life suffer because of "bad communication skills". Impress people with your language and make every word count.
  • Improves your writing - Create the right impression with your emails and letters.
  • Makes getting top grades at school or college EASY - You'll be writing so well that your teachers might even think you are cheating!
  • Grows your confidence with words and conversation - No more stuttering and fumbling for the right word. Make your point – boldly and clearly – without losing everyone’s interest!
  • Makes others notice your articulate language - When you speak, you will literally stop people in their tracks and MAKE them pay attention.
  • Improves your score in tests such as IQ tests, SAT, GMAT, and GRE - You'll be confident that you are equipped with the advanced vocabulary required to succeed in these tests.
  • Improves your spelling - When your emails are full of spelling mistakes, people judge you as un-educated… and may even assume you have a low-IQ. Ultimate Vocabulary puts a stop to this common career mistake.
  • Equips you to easily express your ideas - Having the right words to express your ideas effectively will make all the difference in getting your point across.
  • Empowers you with advanced reading and comprehension skills - No more missing the author's point because you don't understand their language. You'll finally be able to understand the words and concepts in everything you read.
  • Improves opportunities for promotion and career progression - It's proven by numerous studies (see above for examples) that a good vocabulary is a strong predictor of career success. Having this knowledge will give you a distinct edge over your competition.

 

Learn English Idioms

Idioms and Sayings About Buildings

 

 

Idiom/Saying

Explanation

To bank on something/someone

For example:

"You can always bank on friends to help you."

Something or someone you can be sure of.

To lock the barn door after the horse has bolted

For example:

"Buying a burglar alarm after the break in was like locking the barn door after the horse had bolted."

To be careful or try to make something safe when it is too late.

To be banging/hitting your head against a brick wall.

For example:

"Trying to get them to do their homework is like banging my head against a brick wall."

To keep asking someone to do something which they never do.

Like a ton of bricks

For example:

" The news of the accident hit me like a ton of bricks."

To be affected strongly or forcefully by something.

You can't make bricks without straw.

For example:

"It's no good trying to build a website if you don't know any html, you can't make bricks without straw."

You cannot do something correctly without the necessary materials/knowledge.

Castles in the air

For example:

" She is always building castles in the air and is very unrealistic."

To have daydreams.

To be in the doghouse

For example:

"He was really in the doghouse after borrowing his father's car without permission."

To be in trouble.

To hold the fort

For example:

"He has been holding the fort at his company while his boss is on vacation."

To cope in an emergency, often by acting as a temporary substitute.

Close to home

For example:

"What the fortune teller said about my past life hit close to home, it was uncanny."

To be near to someone`s personal feelings, wishes or interests.

Make oneself at home

For example:

"I always make myself at home when I visit the in-laws."

To act as if you were at home.

 

House of cards

For example:

"The peace agreement between the two countries was like a house of cards and quickly fell apart."

Something badly put together and easily knocked down, a poorly thought out plan/action.

On the house

For example:

"The club was celebrating its anniversary so the drinks were on the house."

Something provided free by a business - especially in a bar or restaurant.

Put one`s own house in order

For example:

"The government should put its own house in order before it tells others what to do."

Organize one`s own private affairs.

To bring the house down

For example:

"The last act was so good they brought the house down."

To cause alot of applause or laughter.

People who live in glass houses shouldn't throw stones

For example:

"He was always telling people to be honest and then he stole the money, he should know that people who live in glass houses shouldn't throw stones."

Do not complain about other people if you are as bad as they are.

Run-of-the-mill

For example:

"Nothing extraordinary happened the whole day was very run-of-the-mill."

Something that is ordinary or usual.

To go through the mill

For example:

"Since his divorce he has really gone through the mill."

To experience a difficult situation.

To go through the roof

For example:

"When she saw how dirty his clothes were, his mother went through the roof."

To become very angry, go into a rage.

To hit the roof

For example:

"He hit the roof when he found out that his son had wrecked the family car. "

To become very angry, go into a rage.

To be a tower of strength

For example:

" He has been a real tower of strength all through the divorce."

Someone who gives strong and reliable support

A hole in the wall

1) "We went for a drink at a little hole in the wall near the university last night."

2) "I went to the hole in the wall to get some cash."

1) A small place to live, stay or work in.

2) A cash machine.

To climb the wall

For example:

" The journey was so boring she was soon climbing the wall."

To be so bored that you become anxious and frustrated

To knock one`s head against a brick wall

For example:

"I have been knocking my head against a brick wall trying to solve this week's Mind Bender."

To waste time trying to do something with little or no success.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL TIPS.

 

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افعال با قاعده دوشنبه 4 مرداد1389 20:5
There are thousands of regular verbs in English. This is a list of 600 of the more common regular verbs. Note that there are some spelling variations in American English (for example, "practise" becomes "practice" in American English).

  • accept
  • add
  • admire
  • admit
  • advise
  • afford
  • agree
  • alert
  • allow
  • amuse
  • analyse
  • announce
  • annoy
  • answer
  • apologise
  • appear
  • applaud
  • appreciate
  • approve
  • argue
  • arrange
  • arrest
  • arrive
  • ask
  • attach
  • attack
  • attempt
  • attend
  • attract
  • avoid

 

  • back
  • bake
  • balance
  • ban
  • bang
  • bare
  • bat
  • bathe
  • battle
  • beam
  • beg
  • behave
  • belong
  • bleach
  • bless
  • blind
  • blink
  • blot
  • blush
  • boast
  • boil
  • bolt
  • bomb
  • book
  • bore
  • borrow
  • bounce
  • bow
  • box
  • brake
  • brake
  • branch
  • breathe
  • bruise
  • brush
  • bubble
  • bump
  • burn
  • bury
  • buzz

 

  • calculate
  • call
  • camp
  • care
  • carry
  • carve
  • cause
  • challenge
  • change
  • charge
  • chase
  • cheat
  • check
  • cheer
  • chew
  • choke
  • chop
  • claim
  • clap
  • clean
  • clear
  • clip
  • close
  • coach
  • coil
  • collect
  • colour
  • comb
  • command
  • communicate
  • compare
  • compete
  • complain
  • complete
  • concentrate
  • concern
  • confess
  • confuse
  • connect
  • consider
  • consist
  • contain
  • continue
  • copy
  • correct
  • cough
  • count
  • cover
  • crack
  • crash
  • crawl
  • cross
  • crush
  • cry
  • cure
  • curl
  • curve
  • cycle

 

  • dam
  • damage
  • dance
  • dare
  • decay
  • deceive
  • decide
  • decorate
  • delay
  • delight
  • deliver
  • depend
  • describe
  • desert
  • deserve
  • destroy
  • detect
  • develop
  • disagree
  • disappear
  • disapprove
  • disarm
  • discover
  • dislike
  • divide
  • double
  • doubt
  • drag
  • drain
  • dream
  • dress
  • drip
  • drop
  • drown
  • drum
  • dry
  • dust

 

  • earn
  • educate
  • embarrass
  • employ
  • empty
  • encourage
  • end
  • enjoy
  • enter
  • entertain
  • escape
  • examine
  • excite
  • excuse
  • exercise
  • exist
  • expand
  • expect
  • explain
  • explode
  • extend

 

  • face
  • fade
  • fail
  • fancy
  • fasten
  • fax
  • fear
  • fence
  • fetch
  • file
  • fill
  • film
  • fire
  • fit
  • fix
  • flap
  • flash
  • float
  • flood
  • flow
  • flower
  • fold
  • follow
  • fool
  • force
  • form
  • found
  • frame
  • frighten
  • fry

 

  • gather
  • gaze
  • glow
  • glue
  • grab
  • grate
  • grease
  • greet
  • grin
  • grip
  • groan
  • guarantee
  • guard
  • guess
  • guide

 

  • hammer
  • hand
  • handle
  • hang
  • happen
  • harass
  • harm
  • hate
  • haunt
  • head
  • heal
  • heap
  • heat
  • help
  • hook
  • hop
  • hope
  • hover
  • hug
  • hum
  • hunt
  • hurry

 

  • identify
  • ignore
  • imagine
  • impress
  • improve
  • include
  • increase
  • influence
  • inform
  • inject
  • injure
  • instruct
  • intend
  • interest
  • interfere
  • interrupt
  • introduce
  • invent
  • invite
  • irritate
  • itch

 

  • jail
  • jam
  • jog
  • join
  • joke
  • judge
  • juggle
  • jump

 

  • kick
  • kill
  • kiss
  • kneel
  • knit
  • knock
  • knot

 

  • label
  • land
  • last
  • laugh
  • launch
  • learn
  • level
  • license
  • lick
  • lie
  • lighten
  • like
  • list
  • listen
  • live
  • load
  • lock
  • long
  • look
  • love

 

  • man
  • manage
  • march
  • mark
  • marry
  • match
  • mate
  • matter
  • measure
  • meddle
  • melt
  • memorise
  • mend
  • mess up
  • milk
  • mine
  • miss
  • mix
  • moan
  • moor
  • mourn
  • move
  • muddle
  • mug
  • multiply
  • murder

 

  • nail
  • name
  • need
  • nest
  • nod
  • note
  • notice
  • number

 

  • obey
  • object
  • observe
  • obtain
  • occur
  • offend
  • offer
  • open
  • order
  • overflow
  • owe
  • own

 

  • pack
  • paddle
  • paint
  • park
  • part
  • pass
  • paste
  • pat
  • pause
  • peck
  • pedal
  • peel
  • peep
  • perform
  • permit
  • phone
  • pick
  • pinch
  • pine
  • place
  • plan
  • plant
  • play
  • please
  • plug
  • point
  • poke
  • polish
  • pop
  • possess
  • post
  • pour
  • practise
  • pray
  • preach
  • precede
  • prefer
  • prepare
  • present
  • preserve
  • press
  • pretend
  • prevent
  • prick
  • print
  • produce
  • program
  • promise
  • protect
  • provide
  • pull
  • pump
  • punch
  • puncture
  • punish
  • push

 

  • question
  • queue

 

 

 

  • race
  • radiate
  • rain
  • raise
  • reach
  • realise
  • receive
  • recognise
  • record
  • reduce
  • reflect
  • refuse
  • regret
  • reign
  • reject
  • rejoice
  • relax
  • release
  • rely
  • remain
  • remember
  • remind
  • remove
  • repair
  • repeat
  • replace
  • reply
  • report
  • reproduce
  • request
  • rescue
  • retire
  • return
  • rhyme
  • rinse
  • risk
  • rob
  • rock
  • roll
  • rot
  • rub
  • ruin
  • rule
  • rush

 

  • sack
  • sail
  • satisfy
  • save
  • saw
  • scare
  • scatter
  • scold
  • scorch
  • scrape
  • scratch
  • scream
  • screw
  • scribble
  • scrub
  • seal
  • search
  • separate
  • serve
  • settle
  • shade
  • share
  • shave
  • shelter
  • shiver
  • shock
  • shop
  • shrug
  • sigh
  • sign
  • signal
  • sin
  • sip
  • ski
  • skip
  • slap
  • slip
  • slow
  • smash
  • smell
  • smile
  • smoke
  • snatch
  • sneeze
  • sniff
  • snore
  • snow
  • soak
  • soothe
  • sound
  • spare
  • spark
  • sparkle
  • spell
  • spill
  • spoil
  • spot
  • spray
  • sprout
  • squash
  • squeak
  • squeal
  • squeeze
  • stain
  • stamp
  • stare
  • start
  • stay
  • steer
  • step
  • stir
  • stitch
  • stop
  • store
  • strap
  • strengthen
  • stretch
  • strip
  • stroke
  • stuff
  • subtract
  • succeed
  • suck
  • suffer
  • suggest
  • suit
  • supply
  • support
  • suppose
  • surprise
  • surround
  • suspect
  • suspend
  • switch

 

  • talk
  • tame
  • tap
  • taste
  • tease
  • telephone
  • tempt
  • terrify
  • test
  • thank
  • thaw
  • tick
  • tickle
  • tie
  • time
  • tip
  • tire
  • touch
  • tour
  • tow
  • trace
  • trade
  • train
  • transport
  • trap
  • travel
  • treat
  • tremble
  • trick
  • trip
  • trot
  • trouble
  • trust
  • try
  • tug
  • tumble
  • turn
  • twist
  • type

 

  • undress
  • unfasten
  • unite
  • unlock
  • unpack
  • untidy
  • use

 

  • vanish
  • visit

 

 

 

  • wail
  • wait
  • walk
  • wander
  • want
  • warm
  • warn
  • wash
  • waste
  • watch
  • water
  • wave
  • weigh
  • welcome
  • whine
  • whip
  • whirl
  • whisper
  • whistle
  • wink
  • wipe
  • wish
  • wobble
  • wonder
  • work
  • worry
  • wrap
  • wreck
  • wrestle
  • wriggle

 

  • x-ray

 

 

 

 

  • yawn
  • yell

 

 

 

  • zip
  • zoom

 

نوشته شده توسط راسم قربانی  | لینک ثابت |

افعال بی قاعده در انگلیسی دوشنبه 4 مرداد1389 20:1

This is a list of some irregular verbs in English. Of course, there are many others, but these are the more common irregular verbs.

Base Form

Past Simple

Past Participle

awake

awoke

awoken

be

was, were

been

beat

beat

beaten

become

became

become

begin

began

begun

bend

bent

bent

bet

bet

bet

bid

bid

bid

bite

bit

bitten

blow

blew

blown

break

broke

broken

bring

brought

brought

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

build

built

built

burn

burned/burnt

burned/burnt

buy

bought

bought

catch

caught

caught

choose

chose

chosen

come

came

come

cost

cost

cost

cut

cut

cut

dig

dug

dug

do

did

done

draw

drew

drawn

dream

dreamed/dreamt

dreamed/dreamt

drive

drove

driven

drink

drank

drunk

eat

ate

eaten

fall

fell

fallen

feel

felt

felt

fight

fought

fought

find

found

found

fly

flew

flown

forget

forgot

forgotten

forgive

forgave

forgiven

freeze

froze

frozen

get

got

gotten

give

gave

given

go

went

gone

grow

grew

grown

hang

hung

hung

have

had

had

hear

heard

heard

hide

hid

hidden

hit

hit

hit

hold

held

held

hurt

hurt

hurt

keep

kept

kept

know

knew

known

lay

laid

laid

lead

led

led

learn

learned/learnt

learned/learnt

leave

left

left

lend

lent

lent

let

let

let

lie

lay

lain

lose

lost

lost

make

made

made

mean

meant

meant

meet

met

met

pay

paid

paid

put

put

put

read

read

read

ride

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen

run

ran

run

say

said

said

see

saw

seen

sell

sold

sold

send

sent

sent

show

showed

showed/shown

shut

shut

shut

sing

sang

sung

sit

sat

sat

sleep

slept

slept

speak

spoke

spoken

spend

spent

spent

stand

stood

stood

swim

swam

swum

take

took

taken

teach

taught

taught

tear

tore

torn

tell

told

told

think

thought

thought

throw

threw

thrown

understand

understood

understood

wake

woke

woken

wear

wore

worn

win

won

won

write

wrote

written

نوشته شده توسط راسم قربانی  | لینک ثابت |

آموزش با تصویر دوشنبه 4 مرداد1389 19:59
At the Firehouse: Words
ambulance

ambulance

An ambulance takes sick people to the hospital.
ax

ax

An ax is useful for chopping wood.


boots

Boots are a type of shoe. Boots cover the feet and part of the lower legs.


Dalmatian

The Dalmatian is a white dog that has dark spots.


danger

You can get hurt in a dangerous situation.


fire

Fire is very hot.


firefighter

A firefighter is a person who puts out fires and saves people's lives.


fire truck

Fire fighters travel on a fire truck to put out fires.

flag

A flag is a symbol of a group of people, like a country or an organization.

flame

A flame is a fire.


flashlight

A flashlight helps you find your way in the dark.


hatchet

A hatchet is an ax with a short handle.


helmet

A helmet protects your head. Firefighters wear helmets.


hero

A hero is someone who is admired for great courage, noble character, and performing good deeds, like a firefighter.

hose

Water flows through a hose.


hydrant

Fire fighters hook a hose up to a fire hydrant to get water.


ladder

You can climb up a ladder to reach tall things.


rope

A rope is useful for tying things together.


water

Water is a liquid that can put out some types of fires.


wrench

A wrench is a tool that turns nuts or bolts, like those on a fire hydrant.

Camping-Related Words


backpack

A backpack is a sack that is worn on the back and is used to carry things.


cabin

A cabin is a small, simple house.


camera

You can take pictures with a camera.


camper

You can travel and sleep in a camper.


camp fire

A camp fire is a fire made during a campout; it is used to cook food and to warm up people in cold weather.


camping

When people go camping, they go into an outdoor area and sleep in a tent, cabin or camper.

candle

A candle is a stick of wax with a wick that can burn.


canoe

A canoe is a small boat.


compass

A compass always points north.


east

East is a compass direction. East is opposite west.


flashlight

A flashlight helps you find your way in the dark.


forest

A forest is a large group of trees and underbrush where many animals live.


kayak

A kayak is a small boat with an opening in the center for a person.


lake

A lake is a large body of water surrounded by land on all sides. Really huge lakes are often called seas.


lantern

A lantern is a device that gives off light.


log

A log is a short piece of a tree trunk.


log cabin

A log cabin is a house made of logs.


map

A map shows the features of an area. You can find your way around by using a map.


mountain

A mountain is a very tall high, natural place on Earth - higher than a hill. The tallest mountain on Earth is Mt. Everest.


north

North is a compass direction. North is opposite south.


sleeping bag

A sleeping bag is a fabric sack you can sleep in.


south

South is a compass direction. South is opposite from north.


tent

A tent is a temporary shelter made of fabric.


water bottle

A water bottle holds water.


west

West is a compass direction. West is opposite east.

City-Related Words
alley

alley

An alley is a narrow road between buildings.
ambulance

ambulance

An ambulance takes sick people to the hospital.
art gallery

art gallery

You can see works of art at an art gallery.
automobile

automobile

An automobile is a car.
avenue

avenue

An avenue is a wide street.


bank

You can put your money in a bank for safe keeping.
bridge

bridge

A bridge is a structure over water, or over another thing that is difficult to cross.


building

A building is a structure built by people.


bus

A bus is a large vehicle that can take many passengers to places.


cab

Cab is another word for taxi.


car

You can travel in a car.


church

Some people worship in churches.


city

A city is a place where a lot of people live.


crosswalk

A crosswalk is a marked area on a street where it is safer to cross.


elevator

An elevator carries people and things up and down a tall building.


factory

Many items, like cars, are made in factories.


fire hydrant

Fire fighters hook a hose up to a fire hydrant to get water.


fire truck

Fire fighters on a fire truck help put out fires.


garbage truck

A garbage truck picks up garbage and hauls it to the dump.


house

Some people live in houses.


hydrant

Fire fighters hook a hose up to a fire hydrant to get water.


intersection

An intersection is a where two or more things, like roads, meet.


lane

A lane is a small road.


library

Libraries have books, tapes, and computer programs.


mail carrier

A mail carrier delivers the mail.


market

We can buy things at a market.


motorcycle

A motorcycle has two wheels and can go fassssttttttt!


museum

Museums exhibit art, historic objects, and scientific finds - like dinosaur fossils.


neighborhood

A neighborhood is the place where you and the people around you live.


obelisk

An obelisk is a tall, four-sided tower topped with a pyramid.


palace

A palace is a huge house where a king or queen lives.


road

A road is a wide path made for travelling.


school

A school is a place where you learn things.


sidewalk

A sidewalk is a paved path for people to walk on.


skyscraper

A skyscraper is a very tall building.


stadium

A stadium is a large building in which sports events are held.


stop sign

A stop sign is a traffic sign that tells cars to stop moving before they continue; it has eight sides.


store

A store is where we can buy things.


street

A street is a public road.


taxi

People pay a taxi driver to drive them places.


town

A town is a very small city.


traffic light

A traffic light directs traffic safely. Green means go, yellow means prepare to stop, and red means stop.


train

A train has an engine that pulls railroad cars along a track.


truck

A truck is a vehicle that can carry big loads.


urban

Urban means relating to or located in a city.


van

A van is a truck used to haul people and things from one place to another.


village

A village is a very small town.


wall

A wall is a side of a building or a room or a fence.
House-Related Words
armchair

armchair

An armchair is a chair with arms.


bathtub

You take a bath in a bathtub.


bed

People sleep in beds.


bench

A few people can sit on a bench.


bookcase

Books are stored in bookcases.


brick

This fireplace is made out of bricks.


broom

You can sweep the floor with a broom.


can opener

A can opener is a device that opens cans.

carpet

A carpet is a floor covering made of woven yarn or thick fabric.


chair

A chair is a piece of furniture that people sit on.
chimney

chimney

A chimney is a structure in which you can build a fire.


china

China is well-made pottery that was first made in China.
clothespin

clothespin

Clothespins are used to hang wet laundry on a clothes line to dry.


couch

A couch is a big, soft piece of furniture that many people can sit on.


cradle

A cradle is a small bed for a baby.


cuckoo clock

A cuckoo clock has a mechanical bird that sings every hour.


cupboard

Things are stored in cupboards.


curtains

Curtains are cloth hung on and around a window.


door

You can go in and out through a door.


drapes

Drapes are cloth hung on and around a window.


dresser

A dresser is a piece of furniture in which you can store things.


fan

A fan is a machine that makes a breeze.


faucet

You can turn water flow on or off at a faucet.


fence

A fence is a type of barrier.


fireplace

You can make a fire in a fireplace to keep you warm.


footstool

A footstool is a small piece of furniture.


frame

People put pictures and photos in frames to protect them and make them look nice.


freezer

A freezer keeps things icy.


furniture

Tables, chairs, sofas, and beds are furniture.


garbage can

Garbage cans hold garbage.


garden

Plants grow in a garden.


gate

A gate is a door in a fence.


grandfather clock

A grandfather clock is a large, free-standing pendulum clock.


home

Home is where you live.


house

Some people live in houses.


hut

A hut is a small, simple shelter.


igloo

An igloo is a house made out of blocks of ice. Brr!


kettle

A kettle is a pot in which you boil water.
key

key

We use keys to lock and unlock doors.


kitchen

People prepare and store food in a kitchen.


lamp

A lamp gives out light.


lawn

A lawn is a place outside where grass grows.


lawn mower

You can cut the grass with a lawn mower.


living room

A living room is a large room in an apartment or house.


log cabin

A log cabin is a house made of logs.


mat

You can wipe your shoes on a floor mat.


microwave oven

Microwave ovens heat up food quickly.


mirror

You can see your reflection in a mirror.


mobile

A mobile is a hanging sculpture.


oven

Ovens get very hot. You can bake food in an oven.


oven mitt

An oven mitt protects your hand when you put things in or out of an oven.


pillow

A pillow is a soft cushion that you can rest upon.


quilt

Quilts keep you warm at night.


roof

The roof is the top covering of a building.


room

A room is a part of a building that is separated off by walls.


rug

A rug is a floor covering made of woven yarn or thick fabric.
shelf

shelf

A shelf is a small platform on which things can be placed.
shower

shower

When you shower, you wash your body in a stream of falling water.


sink

We can wash our hands at a sink.


soap

Soap and water help clean things.


sofa

A sofa is a large, soft piece of furniture that many people can sit on.


sponge

Sponges are absorbent objects used to clean things.


stool

A stool is a seat with neither arms nor a back.


stove

You can cook food on a stove.


table

A table is a piece of furniture with a flat top and legs.


toaster

A toaster is a machine that heats up slices of bread, making toast.


toilet

Toilets are in bathrooms.


trash can

A trash can holds garbage.


vacuum cleaner

A vacuum cleaner is a device used to clean rugs and floors.


wall

A wall is a side of a building or a room or a fence.


wastebasket

People throw trash in a wastebasket.


welcome mat

You can wipe your shoes on a welcome mat.


window

A window is a glass-covered opening in a wall or vehicle. You can see out a window.


yard

A yard is a small outside area.



نوشته شده توسط راسم قربانی  | لینک ثابت |

 

نام و نام خانوادگی  : راسم قربانی                 

  نام پدر : حسین

ش . ش : 621

محل تولد : میانه

تاریخ تولد : 1356

 

شغل فعلی : مدیر آموزشی آموزشگاه زبان نیکان

 

سوابق پزوهشی و کاری :

 

 1.ترجمه نامه های اداری و فکسها در شرکت بهناب سازان 81-80

2. تحقیق در مورد بهترین منابع امتحان تافل و آیلتز و تهیه جزوه آموزشی  

. بررسی روانشناسی آموزشی کودک در سنین مختلف یادگیری زبان

 

سوابق تدریس :

 

تدریس در آموزشگاه زبان 80- 78 

تدریس در آموزشگاه زبان 85-80

مدیرا موزشی آموزشگاه زبان 88-85

 

سوابق تحصیلی :

کارشناس مترجمی زبان انگلیسی دانشگاه آزاد تهران شمال .دانشجوی ارشد زبان انگلیسی

 

دوره های آموزشی طی شده :

1. اصول و روش تدریس موسسه زبان چهارراه ولی عصر تهران

2. اصول و روش تدریس آموزشگاه کیش وی شهریار

3. دوره ترجمه نامه و اسناد مطالعه خودی

 4 .دارنده آیلتز جنرال 5/7 و 5/6

آدرس :

کد پستی : 88658- 37531

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A GIANT SCULPTURE

 

What monument is a symbol of American freedom known around the world? It is the Statue of Liberty in New York City’s harbor.

The statue became a symbol of freedom in the first half of the 20th century. That’s when millions of European immigrants came to the United States by ship and passed through the harbor. The statue of a tall lady holding a torch was a welcoming beacon.

The Statue of Liberty is a giant sculpture of a woman dressed in flowing robes and wearing a spiked crown. Her right hand holds a gold torch high above her head. Her left arm holds a book of law with the date July 4, 1776, the date Americans declared their independence from Britain. The statue from base to torch is 305 feet (93 meters) high. The lady herself stands 151 feet (46 meters) tall.

VISITING THE STATUE OF LIBERTY

The Statue of Liberty stands on Liberty Island. You can reach the island by ferry from New York City. An elevator takes you to an observation deck at the top of the monument’s base. Some visitors climb 354 steps to reach the statue’s crown. From there, they have a spectacular view of New York City and its harbor. Ellis Island, where millions of immigrants entered the United States, is located nearby.

GIFT FROM FRANCE

The people of France gave the Statue of Liberty to the United States in 1884. The gift honors the alliance between the two nations during the American Revolution. Thousands of French citizens donated the money to build the statue. French sculptor Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi designed the statue.

After completion, the statue was exhibited in France. It was then taken apart for shipment to the United States and put back together at its present location. United States president Grover Cleveland dedicated the Statue of Liberty on October 28, 1886.

A poem is written on the base of the monument. It includes these words: “Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to be free.…”

 

 

                          COLOR COMES FROM LIGHT

 The world is full of beautiful color

. You see a violet dress, a blue car, a yellow flower, and a green tree. The colored leaves on trees in autumn mean that winter is coming. All kinds of colors are everywhere.

White light, including sunlight and light from a light bulb, is actually made of all the colors of the rainbow. Have you ever seen sunlight that hits a piece of crystal? Rays of blue, purple, orange, yellow, and red seem to shoot out from the crystal in all directions. The crystal spreads the colors of light apart a bit so you can see them separately.Scientists show the colors of light in a bar called a spectrum. A rainbow is a spectrum. Its colors go from red through orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Violet is purple and indigo is a deep purplish-blue. It’s easy to remember the colors of the spectrum because the first letter of each color makes up a name: Roy G. Biv.

HOW DO WE SEE COLOR?

White light, such as sunlight or light from a light bulb, lets you see things. Dresses, cars, and all other things we see absorb (soak up) some of the colors of white light. The colors that don’t get absorbed bounce off of things. Red light bounces off a red dress. The dress soaks up other colors. Your eyes see the red light but not the other colors. Your eyes send this message to your brain. Your brain tells you that you are seeing a dress that looks red.Something very special happens when you see a red dress or green grass. Objects themselves don’t actually have color. What they have is the ability to reflect (bounce back) different types of light. When this reflected light enters your eyes, your brain interprets the different types of light as color. Your eyes and brain work together to translate the different types of light into different colors.

COLORS OF PAINT

Artists call three special colors the primary colors of paint. These colors are magenta (purplish-pink), yellow, and cyan (light greenish-blue). You can make other colors of paint by mixing the primary colors together. But you cannot mix other colors of paint to make a primary color.

Suppose you want to paint a picture of an apple tree. You can make whatever colors you want to use with just four jars of paint: magenta, yellow, cyan, and white. You mix yellow and cyan to make green paint for the leaves. For the apples, mix magenta and yellow paint to make the color red.To paint the sky light blue, you must use some white paint. White makes other colors lighter. Mix magenta and cyan to make a deep blue. Then add some white paint to the blue paint until the blue becomes light enough for the sky. White paint mixed with blue or another color is called a tint. A light blue tint will make a color like a clear sky.If you mix all three colors together you get black paint. You can make a color darker by mixing it with black paint. Colors mixed with black paint are called shades. When you mix black and white together, you get gray.

Favorite movie

What is your favorite movie? Maybe you like cartoon-like movies. Maybe you like a movie that is full of action. Movies are a wonderful kind of make-believe.

A movie is a series of pictures. Each image is a still photograph, just like a picture you take with a regular camera. But the pictures flash by so fast in a movie that the images blend together and overlap. As a result, you see horses run, people talk, cars plunge over mountainsides, and other kinds of motion. That’s why movies are sometimes called motion pictures. Movies are also called films because they are photographed, or filmed.

HOW DO THEY MAKE CARTOONS?

Cartoons are called animated films. Artists draw the scenes. They draw the background and the characters. Each drawing of the character is slightly different. For example, the legs are in different places if the character is running. A special camera takes pictures of each scene the artist has drawn. When the pictures are played back, it looks like the character is running. Making drawings that seem to move is called animation.

Some enjoyable animated films include Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), Beauty and the Beast (1991), The Lion King (1994), and Finding Nemo (2003). In some films, there are both animated characters and human actors, as in Space Jam (1996). Space Jam stars Bugs Bunny and basketball star Michael Jordan.

WHO WORKS ON MOVIES?

Many different people work on a movie. The producer finds money to pay for the film, hires people to make the movie, and gets the movie to theaters. The director imagines how the film should look and guides the actors and the crew as they make the movie. Assistants help the producer and the director.

Screenwriters write an original story for the movie, or they work with a story told in a book. Actors play characters in the story. A music composer writes background music for the film.

Most members of the movie crew work behind the scenes. Designers make the sets and costumes. The camera crew runs the cameras that film the movie.

Dozens of short scenes have to be put together after the filming is done. That is the job of the film editors. Sound editors add background noises, such as honking horns in a scene on a busy street. In action films, stuntmen and stuntwomen often fill in for the actors and perform dangerous moves that could lead to injury.

HOW DO THEY SHOOT A MOVIE?

Lots of work has to be done before the filming begins. The producer and director plan how and when they will film each scene.

A movie is filmed scene by scene, and a scene is filmed shot by shot. The scenes are not usually filmed in the order that you see them in the movie. Sometimes the weather is bad and an outdoor scene cannot be filmed. Big, fancy sets take a long time to build. Scenes using these sets are often shot later even though you may see them at the beginning of the film.

When it is time to film a scene, the designers get the set ready. The actors run through their lines and movements. The director of photography arranges the lights. The camera operator checks camera angles for the shot. The sound crew sets up microphones.

The cameras roll. Each filmed shot is called a take. The director may ask for many takes before he or she is satisfied with the scene.

WHAT ARE SPECIAL EFFECTS?

Special effects create the illusion of things that moviemakers could not possibly shoot. Special effects include small models of huge scenes, cleverly designed sets, and computer-generated images. Moviemakers use these to film scenes and places that do not exist. They might use a small model of a large building to stage and film the building falling down.

Some sets for the movie Titanic (1997) had to look like a sinking ocean liner. The moviemakers could not film the inside of a large ship sinking. So the set designers built the ship’s grand staircase and dining saloon over a huge tank that held 5 million gallons (19 million liters) of water. They lowered the sets into the water tank to make it look as if the rooms were sinking.

COMPUTERS AND SPECIAL EFFECTS

Films can be digitized, or turned into computer files. Moviemakers can then change the images any way they want. They can use computers to make new images. Dinosaurs made by computer looked like they were charging toward people in Jurassic Park (1993).

Computers can even make images of actors. Many images in Titanic, including crowds of people on the ship, were actually made by computer. In The Matrix (1999), computers were used to make the actors look as if they were fighting while floating in the air.

 

 

GOOD AT EVERYTHING

 

Leonardo da Vinci excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and scientist. He had endless curiosity. Leonardo wanted to understand how things worked. He wanted to put down on paper what he saw. He left thousands of pages of drawings and notes that recorded his thoughts.

Leonardo was born in 1452 in the small town of Vinci, near Florence, Italy. He had little schooling and was largely self-taught.

Leonardo seemed to be good at everything he tried. He was handsome, a good speaker, and a fine musician. He trained as a painter with Andrea del Verrocchio, a leading artist in Florence. Leonardo later worked for dukes and kings.

HIS MOST FAMOUS PAINTINGS

Leonardo produced a relatively small number of paintings, and he left some of them unfinished. But he had original ideas that influenced Italian artists long after his death. Leonardo believed painting was a science. He applied scientific thinking in his art so that his paintings looked more like the real world. One of his most important painting techniques was sfumato, a blending of one area of color into another so there are no sharp outlines.

Leonardo used sfumato in one of his most famous paintings, the Mona Lisa. When you look at this portrait, notice how colors shade into each other on her face and hands. See how Leonardo has blurred the edges of her mouth to give her the hint of a smile. This mysterious smile has fascinated people for centuries. It looks as if Mona Lisa’s expression might change at any moment because of the way Leonardo has softened the edges of the mouth, eyes, and cheeks. She seems almost alive.

Many people consider a mural by Leonardo known as The Last Supper to be his masterpiece. Christ, seated in the middle of The Last Supper, has just announced that one of his 12 apostles will betray him. Leonardo places the figures in this painting in a way that increases the drama of the announcement. Christ is the calm center. His body, which is set slightly apart from the others, forms a stable triangle. The apostles are arranged in four groups, some leaning toward Christ and some leaning away. Their gestures and the expressions on their faces reveal their reactions to Christ’s words.

HIS DRAWINGS AND NOTEBOOKS

Drawing was Leonardo’s favorite tool. He said that drawing was a better way of communicating ideas than words were. He drew catapults and war machines. He drew the muscles and skeletons of human beings and other animals. He drew clouds, swirling water, and storms. He designed churches that were never built.

Leonardo’s drawings and theories are contained in numerous notebooks. His ideas were far in advance of what other people were thinking at the time. But the notebooks were not published during his lifetime. Had his notebooks been published, they might have revolutionized scientific thinking in the 1500s. Leonardo’s deep love of research was the key to both his artistic and scientific endeavors. Leonardo died in 1519.

 

 

HOW DOES A RADIO WORK?

 

There is music in the air all around you. There are sounds of people talking in the air all around you. The sounds of music and talking are carried by radio waves. There are radio waves everywhere indoors and outdoors.

Radio waves are invisible. You cannot see or feel them. You can only hear radio waves if you turn on a radio. Radios turn radio waves into sound.

Radios need electricity in order to work. Your portable radio gets electricity from batteries. Your clock radio gets electricity from a cord that you plug into an electrical outlet in a wall.

Radios have a power switch or button that lets you turn the radio on or off. Radios have a volume control that lets you play the sounds loudly or softly. Radios also have a dial or button that lets you tune in your favorite radio stations. Each station has a special number on the dial. When you tune in a station, your radio turns radio waves from that station into sound.

Radios have a special wire called an antenna that can pick up radio waves in the air. Radios first turn the radio waves into electrical signals. Then they turn the electrical signals into the sounds of music, traffic and weather reports, or news about your hometown sports teams.

HOW DO RADIO WAVES GET INTO THE AIR?

A radio station sends electrical signals through wires to a tall tower called a broadcast antenna. Electrical signals get changed into radio waves at the antenna. The antenna sends the radio waves out in all directions.

Some radio stations broadcast on AM radio waves. Some programs are broadcast on FM waves. AM radio waves travel farther than FM waves, but FM waves make clearer sounds. Most radios can pick up both AM and FM radio waves.

TWO-WAY RADIO

Radio broadcasts only go one way, from the station to your radio. You can listen to radio, but you cannot talk back. Two-way radio lets people talk to each other on radio waves.

Police officers and firefighters use two-way radio. Firefighters at a big blaze can call for more help on their two-way radios. Soldiers use two-way radios on battlefields.

CELL PHONES AND WIRELESS COMPUTERS

Cell phones use radio waves. Your cell phone sends your phone calls on radio waves to an antenna. The antenna passes your call along. You can talk on a cell phone in a car, on a bus, or just when you are walking around.

Some computers hook up to the Internet with radio waves. These computers have special antennas that can find wireless “hot spots.” These computers do not need to be plugged into a telephone line to surf the Internet.

OTHER WAYS WE USE RADIO WAVES

The radar that lets airplanes and ships “see” things in fog or things far away uses radio waves. Radar systems send out radio waves. The radio waves bounce back from any large object they hit and make images on a radar screen.

Radio waves help us explore deep space. Radio telescopes listen for radio waves from far away in the universe. Astronauts in spacecraft talk to control centers on Earth using radio waves. Radio waves beam pictures to Earth from cameras on space probes visiting other planets.

Doctors use radio waves to see inside the body. They use radio waves from MRI machines to make pictures of people’s insides.

WHO INVENTED RADIO?

During the 1800s, several scientists made discoveries that led to the invention of radio. An Italian inventor named Guglielmo Marconi sent the first sounds on radio waves in 1895. The sounds he sent were just clicks. The clicks were a kind of code that carried telegraph messages. People already knew how to send telegraph messages over wires on land. Telegraph messages sent on radio waves helped ships at sea where there were no wires. Sinking ships could send messages calling for help.

Other inventors learned how to send music and voices over radio waves. Radio stations began broadcasting programs in the 1920s. Families used to gather around the radio to listen to band music, soap operas, or other radio programs.

Inventors have found more and more uses for radio waves. Radio waves have become very important for helping you stay in touch with family and friends.

 

GOOD AT EVERYTHING

 

Leonardo da Vinci excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and scientist. He had endless curiosity. Leonardo wanted to understand how things worked. He wanted to put down on paper what he saw. He left thousands of pages of drawings and notes that recorded his thoughts.

Leonardo was born in 1452 in the small town of Vinci, near Florence, Italy. He had little schooling and was largely self-taught.

Leonardo seemed to be good at everything he tried. He was handsome, a good speaker, and a fine musician. He trained as a painter with Andrea del Verrocchio, a leading artist in Florence. Leonardo later worked for dukes and kings.

HIS MOST FAMOUS PAINTINGS

Leonardo produced a relatively small number of paintings, and he left some of them unfinished. But he had original ideas that influenced Italian artists long after his death. Leonardo believed painting was a science. He applied scientific thinking in his art so that his paintings looked more like the real world. One of his most important painting techniques was sfumato, a blending of one area of color into another so there are no sharp outlines.

Leonardo used sfumato in one of his most famous paintings, the Mona Lisa. When you look at this portrait, notice how colors shade into each other on her face and hands. See how Leonardo has blurred the edges of her mouth to give her the hint of a smile. This mysterious smile has fascinated people for centuries. It looks as if Mona Lisa’s expression might change at any moment because of the way Leonardo has softened the edges of the mouth, eyes, and cheeks. She seems almost alive.

Many people consider a mural by Leonardo known as The Last Supper to be his masterpiece. Christ, seated in the middle of The Last Supper, has just announced that one of his 12 apostles will betray him. Leonardo places the figures in this painting in a way that increases the drama of the announcement. Christ is the calm center. His body, which is set slightly apart from the others, forms a stable triangle. The apostles are arranged in four groups, some leaning toward Christ and some leaning away. Their gestures and the expressions on their faces reveal their reactions to Christ’s words.

HIS DRAWINGS AND NOTEBOOKS

Drawing was Leonardo’s favorite tool. He said that drawing was a better way of communicating ideas than words were. He drew catapults and war machines. He drew the muscles and skeletons of human beings and other animals. He drew clouds, swirling water, and storms. He designed churches that were never built.

Leonardo’s drawings and theories are contained in numerous notebooks. His ideas were far in advance of what other people were thinking at the time. But the notebooks were not published during his lifetime. Had his notebooks been published, they might have revolutionized scientific thinking in the 1500s. Leonardo’s deep love of research was the key to both his artistic and scientific endeavors. Leonardo died in 1519.

 

HIS FIRST HITS

 

Was Elvis more famous for his music or his hips? True, his rock-and-roll style was fresh and daring. But so was the way he swiveled his hips when he sang.

Presley was the first singer to blend the rhythm-and-blues style of black musicians with the country-and-western style of white singers. In doing so, he became a pioneer of the rock style. Most major rock singers claimed that Presley influenced them.

Elvis Aaron Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, in 1935. He grew up listening to gospel music, country and western, and rhythm and blues. At age 10, he won a talent contest singing a ballad called “Old Shep.” In his teens, he taught himself to play the guitar.

After high school, Elvis worked as a truck driver. In 1953, he decided to record some songs for his mom’s birthday. The studio he went to was thrilled to release Elvis’s first two records, “That’s All Right Mama” and “Blue Moon of Kentucky.”

Elvis was a star overnight. Five of his records shot to number one in sales: “Heartbreak Hotel,” “I Want You, I Need You, I Love You,” “Don’t Be Cruel,” “Hound Dog,” and “Love Me Tender.” His rebellious music was matched by his electric performance onstage. He had a way of moving his body that drove teens into a frenzy (and made parents frown).

MOVIE STAR

Elvis began starring in movies that featured his own music: Love Me Tender (1956), Jailhouse Rock (1957), and King Creole (1958). He served in the United States Army from 1958 to 1960. After the Army, he went back to musical films. Critics disliked his later movies in which his rebellious image became more wholesome.

His hit songs continued, though, with “It’s Now or Never,” “Return to Sender,” and “In the Ghetto.” Fans worshiped him. They were crushed when he died, in 1977, probably as a result of overusing prescription drugs. You can visit his grave at his mansion, Graceland. It’s a major tourist site in Memphis, Tennessee.

 

 

HOW DOES A RADIO WORK?

 

There is music in the air all around you. There are sounds of people talking in the air all around you. The sounds of music and talking are carried by radio waves. There are radio waves everywhere indoors and outdoors.

Radio waves are invisible. You cannot see or feel them. You can only hear radio waves if you turn on a radio. Radios turn radio waves into sound.

Radios need electricity in order to work. Your portable radio gets electricity from batteries. Your clock radio gets electricity from a cord that you plug into an electrical outlet in a wall.

Radios have a power switch or button that lets you turn the radio on or off. Radios have a volume control that lets you play the sounds loudly or softly. Radios also have a dial or button that lets you tune in your favorite radio stations. Each station has a special number on the dial. When you tune in a station, your radio turns radio waves from that station into sound.

Radios have a special wire called an antenna that can pick up radio waves in the air. Radios first turn the radio waves into electrical signals. Then they turn the electrical signals into the sounds of music, traffic and weather reports, or news about your hometown sports teams.

HOW DO RADIO WAVES GET INTO THE AIR?

A radio station sends electrical signals through wires to a tall tower called a broadcast antenna. Electrical signals get changed into radio waves at the antenna. The antenna sends the radio waves out in all directions.

Some radio stations broadcast on AM radio waves. Some programs are broadcast on FM waves. AM radio waves travel farther than FM waves, but FM waves make clearer sounds. Most radios can pick up both AM and FM radio waves.

TWO-WAY RADIO

Radio broadcasts only go one way, from the station to your radio. You can listen to radio, but you cannot talk back. Two-way radio lets people talk to each other on radio waves.

Police officers and firefighters use two-way radio. Firefighters at a big blaze can call for more help on their two-way radios. Soldiers use two-way radios on battlefields.

CELL PHONES AND WIRELESS COMPUTERS

Cell phones use radio waves. Your cell phone sends your phone calls on radio waves to an antenna. The antenna passes your call along. You can talk on a cell phone in a car, on a bus, or just when you are walking around.

Some computers hook up to the Internet with radio waves. These computers have special antennas that can find wireless “hot spots.” These computers do not need to be plugged into a telephone line to surf the Internet.

OTHER WAYS WE USE RADIO WAVES

The radar that lets airplanes and ships “see” things in fog or things far away uses radio waves. Radar systems send out radio waves. The radio waves bounce back from any large object they hit and make images on a radar screen.

Radio waves help us explore deep space. Radio telescopes listen for radio waves from far away in the universe. Astronauts in spacecraft talk to control centers on Earth using radio waves. Radio waves beam pictures to Earth from cameras on space probes visiting other planets.

Doctors use radio waves to see inside the body. They use radio waves from MRI machines to make pictures of people’s insides.

WHO INVENTED RADIO?

During the 1800s, several scientists made discoveries that led to the invention of radio. An Italian inventor named Guglielmo Marconi sent the first sounds on radio waves in 1895. The sounds he sent were just clicks. The clicks were a kind of code that carried telegraph messages. People already knew how to send telegraph messages over wires on land. Telegraph messages sent on radio waves helped ships at sea where there were no wires. Sinking ships could send messages calling for help.

Other inventors learned how to send music and voices over radio waves. Radio stations began broadcasting programs in the 1920s. Families used to gather around the radio to listen to band music, soap operas, or other radio programs.

Inventors have found more and more uses for radio waves. Radio waves have become very important for helping you stay in touch with family and friends.

 

 

 

OPERA TELLS A STORY

 

The lights in the theater dim, and the orchestra plays. The curtains swing open to reveal a stage full of people. They start to sing! You are at your first opera. The sounds and sights are spectacular. But what is opera all about?

Opera is a kind of drama. It tells a story. The words of the story are set to music and sung. Operas are performed on a stage in a theater or opera house. Most operas have lavish scenery and costumes. An orchestra plays as the singers sing. A conductor directs both the orchestra and the singers.

Many operas tell very dramatic and emotional stories. Some are tragic. Tragic operas usually end with the death of the hero or heroine. La Bohème (“The Bohemian”) and Madame Butterfly are famous examples of tragic operas. Both operas were written by Giacomo Puccini of Italy. Other operas are comic and end happily. A famous example is The Marriage of Figaro by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart of Austria.

OPERA HAS MANY ELEMENTS

Opera depends on both words and music. It works best when the music expresses the same feelings as the words. The words of an opera are called the libretto. Sometimes the composer writes the libretto as well as the music. Sometimes a different person writes the libretto.

Opera composers often highlight a particularly important or dramatic moment in the story with an aria or a duet. An aria is a song for one singer. A duet is for two singers. Through the words and music of an aria or duet, the singers can express the thoughts and feelings of the characters they play.

Sometimes, several people sing different tunes at the same time on stage. This is called an ensemble. The different characters may sing the same words. Or they may sing different words, perhaps expressing disagreement or conflict. Many operas also have a chorus, a group that sings together.

The singers sometimes speak some parts of the libretto. Through these spoken lines, the composer can give the audience information about the plot between arias, ensembles, and choruses.

Many operas start with a short introduction by the orchestra. This is called the overture. The orchestra usually plays the overture before the curtain goes up to reveal the stage. The overture is often made up of tunes that will appear later in the opera.

OPERA SINGERS AND THEIR VOICES

Singing is at the heart of opera. The singers play the characters in an opera. In addition to singing accurately and with feeling, singers must also be good actors.

Opera singers are grouped according to the range of their voices—that is, how high or low they can sing.

The highest female voice is the soprano. The lowest female voice is the contralto. The mezzo-soprano sings in a range between soprano and contralto. The highest male voice is the tenor, and the deepest is the bass. The baritone sings in a range between tenor and bass.

Over the centuries, composers have come to associate different types of voice with certain parts in an opera. Heroes and heroines are usually tenors and sopranos. Villains and figures of power and majesty are usually baritones or basses.

 

 

OPERA TELLS A STORY

The lights in the theater dim, and the orchestra plays. The curtains swing open to reveal a stage full of people. They start to sing! You are at your first opera. The sounds and sights are spectacular. But what is opera all about?

Opera is a kind of drama. It tells a story. The words of the story are set to music and sung. Operas are performed on a stage in a theater or opera house. Most operas have lavish scenery and costumes. An orchestra plays as the singers sing. A conductor directs both the orchestra and the singers.

Many operas tell very dramatic and emotional stories. Some are tragic. Tragic operas usually end with the death of the hero or heroine. La Bohème (“The Bohemian”) and Madame Butterfly are famous examples of tragic operas. Both operas were written by Giacomo Puccini of Italy. Other operas are comic and end happily. A famous example is The Marriage of Figaro by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart of Austria.

OPERA HAS MANY ELEMENTS

Opera depends on both words and music. It works best when the music expresses the same feelings as the words. The words of an opera are called the libretto. Sometimes the composer writes the libretto as well as the music. Sometimes a different person writes the libretto.

Opera composers often highlight a particularly important or dramatic moment in the story with an aria or a duet. An aria is a song for one singer. A duet is for two singers. Through the words and music of an aria or duet, the singers can express the thoughts and feelings of the characters they play.

Sometimes, several people sing different tunes at the same time on stage. This is called an ensemble. The different characters may sing the same words. Or they may sing different words, perhaps expressing disagreement or conflict. Many operas also have a chorus, a group that sings together.

The singers sometimes speak some parts of the libretto. Through these spoken lines, the composer can give the audience information about the plot between arias, ensembles, and choruses.

Many operas start with a short introduction by the orchestra. This is called the overture. The orchestra usually plays the overture before the curtain goes up to reveal the stage. The overture is often made up of tunes that will appear later in the opera.

OPERA SINGERS AND THEIR VOICES

Singing is at the heart of opera. The singers play the characters in an opera. In addition to singing accurately and with feeling, singers must also be good actors.

Opera singers are grouped according to the range of their voices—that is, how high or low they can sing.

The highest female voice is the soprano. The lowest female voice is the contralto. The mezzo-soprano sings in a range between soprano and contralto. The highest male voice is the tenor, and the deepest is the bass. The baritone sings in a range between tenor and bass.

Over the centuries, composers have come to associate different types of voice with certain parts in an opera. Heroes and heroines are usually tenors and sopranos. Villains and figures of power and majesty are usually baritones or basses.

 WHAT ARE PUPPETS?

 

Do you have a favorite puppet? Perhaps it’s one of the Muppets—Kermit the Frog, Oscar the Grouch, or Cookie Monster? The Muppets are the most popular puppets of all time.

WHAT ARE PUPPETS?

Puppets are figures made to look like people or animals. They are like dolls in some ways. But unlike dolls, puppets perform before an audience. Sometimes, puppets act out stories and teach lessons. Most of the time, puppets entertain us.

People control the movements of puppets. Some puppets are moved by the hand or by fingers. Other puppets are moved by strings, rods, or wires attached to them. The human operator, or puppeteer, sometimes appears with the puppets. Many puppeteers stay hidden.

Puppets are as old as the Stone Age. People used them to tell stories in ancient times. Today, we enjoy puppets on TV, in the movies, and at the theater.

PUPPETS OF MANY KINDS

Puppets come in many forms. Some puppets are small enough to fit over a finger or hand. Other puppets are so big a person fits inside them. Big Bird on Sesame Street is a human-sized puppet.

Ventriloquists use puppets called dummies. Ventriloquists talk to their puppets. They make it seem as if the puppets are talking back. But the ventriloquists are actually doing the talking. They try to move their lips as little as possible.

HAND PUPPETS

Hand puppets fit over the hand, somewhat like a glove. People operate them by moving their wrist and fingers. The forefinger usually operates the head. The thumb and second finger operate the two arms.

Hand puppets are the easiest puppets to control. When these puppets appear on a stage, the puppeteers usually work below the stage. They lift the puppets up to the stage.

The dummies of most ventriloquists are hand puppets. They generally fit over the ventriloquist’s hand and arm.

STRING PUPPETS

String puppets are also called marionettes. They are made to move by strings attached to their head, arms, and legs. During a performance, the puppeteers generally stand behind the stage. They work the marionettes from above.

 

 

SHADOW PUPPETS

Shadow puppets are never actually seen in a performance. The puppets’ shadows are projected by lights onto a screen. Shadow puppets are popular in India, China, and other countries in Asia.

Sometimes, shadow puppets put on plays. The puppeteer speaks all the lines and provides sound effects.

In China, puppets act out famous legends and historical tales. The puppets’ colors reveal their characters. The hero is one color, the villain another.

PUPPETS TODAY

The Muppets became famous on the television program Sesame Street, which began in 1969. From 1976 to 1981, the Muppets even had their own popular TV show. It was watched by children and grownups. Well-known actors, singers, and dancers came on the show and performed with these puppets. The Muppets made several movies, too.

The Muppets are basically hand puppets. The head and arms are worked by hand from inside. But other body parts may be operated by strings, rods, or other controls. The puppeteers watch TV screens while operating the Muppets. The images on the screen help them coordinate movements. The more complicated Muppets are operated by two puppeteers—or even three.

Puppets are sometimes used in animated films. The puppet is posed in front of a camera. It is moved slightly for each picture. When the pictures are shown rapidly, one after the other, the puppet appears to move. James and the Giant Peach is an animated film made with puppets.

 

 

WHAT IS DANCE?

Have you ever twirled in a circle? Stretched on your tiptoes and swept your arms above your head? Tapped your feet to snappy music? All people dance, because the human body is made to move. The world offers an exciting variety of dances!

Our bodies can twist, jump, stretch, and turn. Dance blends these movements together, usually with music. Dance uses space: What patterns do the dancers make across the floor? What designs do dancers’ arms and legs brush through the air? Dance uses time: Is the dance fast or slow? What rhythm pulses in the music? Dance uses weight: Are the steps light and quick, or heavy and limp? Dance uses energy: Does the dance have fast, choppy movements, or flowing, soft ones?

WHY DO WE DANCE?

People around the world dance for different reasons and in different ways. Some dances can express feelings like sadness, anger, or joy. Other dances can tell a story.

Dance may sparkle as an art form, as ballet does, and be performed for an audience. Ballet dancers train for years to learn to leap and turn across a stage.

People may dance as part of an important ceremony, even as part of their religion. Some cultures honor their ancestors through dance. Dances may celebrate important events, such as a birth, graduation, or marriage. A dance might be used to help work go faster, as in the Japanese rice-planting dance.

In some cultures a shaman, or healer, might dance to cure an illness. Some societies use dance to reach a state of trance so the dancers can perform acts of strength or courage, such as dancing on hot coals.

DANCING FOR FUN

We may gather together and dance simply for fun. Many countries have group dances—folk dances—that are passed down through generations.

Social dances encourage two people to dance together. These dances come and go: A new dance may be very popular one year, and out of fashion the next. In the 1800s, couples glided through a waltz or polka. Young people kicked up their heels doing the Charleston in the 1920s. Teenagers spun and swung to the 1940s jitterbug. Couples did not even have to touch hands for the 1960s dance craze, the twist. Disco dancing, popular in the 1970s, and today's hip-hop are also social dances.

 

 

HOW LONG HAVE PEOPLE DANCED?

Dance probably has been around about as long as people have. Cave paintings thousands of years old show what look like dancing figures. Dancers appear in the art of ancient Egypt and Greece. Through dance, societies asked their gods for good crops or bravery in battle.

Hundreds of years ago the Christian church frowned upon dancing. But farmers and villagers still danced for fun. Many of these dances developed into folk dances. Ballet grew out of dances at the royal courts of France and Italy in the 1500s and 1600s.

Drama, acrobatics, and music are combined with dance in many cultures. People added makeup, costumes, and masks to turn dance into theater. These performances tell a story using movements rather than words.

HOW WILL DANCE CHANGE IN THE FUTURE?

Dance constantly evolves, or changes. People seek new forms of expression. Cultures borrow from one another, and from the past. Latin American dance blends Spanish and Native American styles. African and Asian dances influence dance in Europe and North America.

Like our ancestors long ago, we dance for important ceremonies. And like our ancestors, we also dance for the joy of movement, to express our emotions, and to share music and fun.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

نوشته شده توسط راسم قربانی  | لینک ثابت |

مقالات مربوط به دوره انترو دوشنبه 4 مرداد1389 16:52

Animals

Animals live everywhere. They roam the land. They burrow in the ground. They swim in the sea. They fly through the air. They creep, they leap, they soar, and they dive. A very few—including corals and barnacles—stay in one place.Animals come in all sizes. The biggest animals are whales, which can be 100 feet (30 meters) long. The smallest animals can only be seen through a microscope.

Zoologists (scientists who study animals) have found more than 2 million species (kinds) of animals. They think they have discovered only a small portion of all animals on Earth.

Several things make animals different from other living things. Unlike plants, animals cannot make their own food. Animals eat other living things—plants and other animals—to get energy. Animal bodies are made up of more than one cell, unlike bacteria and other life forms with only one cell. Cells are the building blocks of living things. Animals also have senses, such as eyes or ears, that tell them what is going on around them.

WHAT KINDS OF ANIMALS ARE THERE?

Zoologists divide animals into about 30 groups. First, they divide them by whether they have a backbone. Animals that have a backbone are called vertebrates. Animals that do not have a backbone are called invertebrates.The biggest and best-known animals are vertebrates. Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish are vertebrates. You are a vertebrate. Your backbone is also called your spine. There are about 40,000 species of vertebrates.

There are far more species of invertebrates. Even though you can probably think of many vertebrates, the many kinds of invertebrates greatly outnumber vertebrates. Almost all invertebrates are small animals. Insects, spiders, mollusks, and worms are all invertebrates. The biggest invertebrate is the giant squid. It can be up to 60 feet (18 meters) long.

COLD-BLOODED AND WARM-BLOODED ANIMALS

Zoologists divide vertebrates into two types, cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals. The body of a cold-blooded animal is the same temperature as the air or water around it. A cold-blooded animal has to stay in the sun to get warm. It must find shade to cool off. Reptiles, amphibians, and fish are cold-blooded.The body of a warm-blooded animal stays about the same temperature all the time. Warm-blooded animals use food energy to stay warm. Some warm-blooded animals can sweat to cool off. Birds and mammals are warm-blooded.

You are warm-blooded. The normal temperature of your body stays at about 98.6° Fahrenheit (37.0° Celsius). When it is hot outside, you feel hot. You might sweat or look for an air-conditioned place. But your body temperature does not change. When it is cold outside, you feel cold. You might put on a coat or go indoors. But your body temperature does not change much.

PLANT EATERS AND MEAT EATERS

All animals eat plants, other animals, or the remains of dead animals. Animals that only eat plants are called herbivores. They eat seeds, nuts, grasses, stems, or flowers. Some mammals, such as cows, are plant eaters. Some insects, such as termites, only eat plants. Bees, moths, and butterflies suck nectar from flowers.

Animals that only eat meat are called carnivores. The meat can be from other living animals or animals that have died. Many meat eaters hunt the animals that they eat. Sharks go after smaller fish. Lions and wolves hunt deer and other mammals. Owls swoop down on rabbits, squirrels, rats, and mice. Some frogs and lizards zap insects with their sticky tongues. Hyenas and vultures mainly eat animals that are already dead.Animals that commonly eat both animals and plants are called omnivores. Bears and opossums are omnivores. Humans are omnivores. They eat fruit, vegetables, fish, chicken, and steak.

HOW ANIMALS BREATHE

All animals must breathe oxygen to stay alive. They must breathe out a waste gas called carbon dioxide.Some animals breathe through lungs. Lungs take oxygen out of air. Cattle, dogs, cats, whales, people, and other mammals breathe through lungs. Birds and reptiles also breathe air through lungs.Lungs cannot take air from water. Seals, whales, dolphins, and other mammals that live in water breathe through lungs. They can stay underwater a long time because they can hold their breath for a long time.Sharks and other fish breathe through gills. Gills take oxygen out of water. Snails, slugs, clams, squids, octopuses, and other mollusks breathe through gills. Crabs, crayfishes, lobsters, and shrimp have gills. Gills cannot take oxygen out of air.

Some animals breathe through their skin. Insects have small holes in their bodies called spiracles. Air comes in through the holes. Oxygen from the air goes through tubes to all parts of an insect’s body.Amphibians, animals that live on land and in water, can also breathe through their skin. Amphibians also may have lungs or gills or both.

                                            Global warming

Do you like warm weather? Do you wish it could be warmer still? Be careful what you wish for. The Earth may be moving in that direction. The trend is called global warming.

Not all scientists agree that global warming is happening. Some say it is impossible to know if the climate is changing overall. After all, temperatures vary from day to day and year to year. Most scientists, however, say the trend is up. The warmest days are warmer, the coldest days not as cold. They point out that the ten warmest years of the last century happened after 1980. The three hottest came after 1990. The hottest year on record was 1998.

These scientists say the Earth has warmed up about 1° Fahrenheit (0.6° Celsius) in the last 100 years. The rate of change, they say, is speeding up. A hundred years from now, the Earth may well be as much as ten degrees hotter!

WHAT CAUSES GLOBAL WARMING?

Sunlight brings energy to the Earth. This light turns to heat when it hits the ground. The heat in turn seeps away from the Earth, but the atmosphere slows the heat’s escape. The atmosphere is a layer of air around the planet. It holds in some of the warmth. The atmosphere is a mixture of many gases. In the last 250 years, this mixture has been changing. The amounts of gases such as methane and carbon dioxide have been rising. These gases trap heat more effectively than other gases. They make the Earth’s atmosphere act like the glass in a greenhouse. It lets sunlight in, but it doesn’t let heat out. As a result, heat is building up close to the surface.

WHY IS THE ATMOSPHERE CHANGING?

People are changing the atmosphere. The changes started hundreds of years ago when people began cutting down forests and burning the wood.

The invention of cars and other machines greatly increased the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. Such machines burn fuels like wood, coal, oil, and natural gas. When these fuels burn, they add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Methane comes from producing coal.Today, the air contains almost one-third more carbon dioxide than it did in 1750. The amount of methane has doubled.

IS GLOBAL WARMING DANGEROUS?

Global warming could melt the ice at the poles. This would raise the level of the oceans. Water would then cover all the flat coastal lands. People would have less land on which to live and grow food.Plants and animals are adapted to their climates. If the climate changes rapidly, many may not be able to adapt. Some species will simply die out. Others may spread to cooler climates. There, however, they will be struggling with species already in place.

CAN GLOBAL WARMING BE STOPPED?

Burning less wood, coal, oil, and natural gas will help stop global warming. Scientists recommend that people get more energy from sunlight, wind, tides, nuclear energy, and other sources that don’t burn fuel. Energy sources like these put little or no greenhouse gases into the air.Scientists say trees can help prevent global warming. All growing plants take carbon dioxide out of the air. Trees do this especially well. They turn the carbon part of carbon dioxide into wood. They release the oxygen. In recent years, people have been cutting down forests all over the world. Scientists say vast new forests must be planted.

 

WHAT IS BEING DONE?

In 1997, officials from 160 countries met in Kyoto, Japan. They wrote an agreement called the Kyoto Protocol. Countries that sign this agreement promise to burn 5 percent less fossil fuel (coal, oil, and natural gas) by 2012. In 2002, however, the United States decided not to sign the treaty. Russia also has not signed the treaty. Without the United States and Russia, the treaty can’t work.

                             Pollution

In the mid-1900s, a biologist named Rachel Carson was afraid that some day there might be no more birds. Farmers were spraying a chemical called DDT on their fields to kill insects. But DDT was also keeping birds such as the bald eagle and peregrine falcon from having babies. DDT prevented the babies from hatching. She wrote a book called Silent Spring to warn about the dangers of DDT.

Pollution happens when chemicals that are harmful to living things get into the environment. Rachel Carson feared that DDT would get into the food people ate. Her book scared a lot of people. Governments banned the use of DDT. People then began to worry about other kinds of pollution. They worried that pollution could harm people’s health.

WHAT DOES POLLUTION DO?

Pollution can kill or sicken plants, animals, and people. Pollution can change the environment. Things that cause pollution are called pollutants.Pollution can get into the air. Air pollution can irritate people’s lungs. Polluted air can mix with rain to make acid rain. Acid rain kills trees and harms fish in lakes.Pollution can also get into soil and water. From there, pollutants can get into the food chain. Plants take in the pollution from the ground. Animals that eat the plants can be harmed, too. Bigger animals and even people might eat the damaged animals.

WHERE DOES POLLUTION COME FROM?

Air pollution comes from factories and power plants that burn coal and oil. Smoke from factories and power plants can mix with water in the air to make acid rain. Air pollution also comes from cars and other vehicles that burn gasoline.Soil pollution can come from chemicals used on farms to kill insects and other pests. Pollutants can also seep from garbage dumps into the nearby soil and water.Water pollution comes from factories that dump poisonous chemicals into lakes and rivers. Water pollution can also come from farms. Farmers put chemicals on the ground to help crops grow and to kill insects. Rain can wash these chemicals into lakes and rivers.Big ships called oil tankers can pollute the ocean if the oil leaks out of the tankers. There can be a huge oil spill if a tanker has an accident and sinks at sea.A special kind of pollution comes from nuclear power plants. Nuclear power plants produce radioactive waste. This waste lasts for thousands of years and can cause cancer and other deadly illnesses if it is not properly stored.

IS POLLUTION CHANGING EARTH’S CLIMATE?

Many scientists think that pollution is changing Earth’s climate. They think the change is coming from gases in the air called greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide and other gases trap heat from the Sun. They trap heat the way glass walls and ceilings in greenhouses trap heat. It stays warm inside a greenhouse even when it is cold outside.

Greenhouse gases in the air make Earth warm enough for life. But scientists think that people are putting too much carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the air. These extra greenhouse gases come from burning coal and oil in factories and power plants. They come from burning gasoline in cars. Too much of them will make Earth warmer. This warming could cause disastrous changes on the planet.

HOW CAN WE STOP POLLUTION?

Chemicals that cause pollution are not easy to get rid of. They stay in the air and ground and water for a long time. The best way to fight pollution is to stop producing it in the first place. Governments can pass laws that forbid or limit the use of chemicals that cause pollution. Laws can stop factories from dumping poisonous chemicals in lakes, rivers, and the ocean. Factories and power plants can clean up the smoke that they give off.Engineers can build cars that burn less gasoline. They can find ways for cars to give off cleaner exhaust gases.Scientists are looking for fuels to replace coal and oil. They are looking for ways to use the power in wind and in rays from the Sun. They are also looking for safe ways to get rid of nuclear waste.

You can help cut down on the amount of garbage you make. You can recycle paper, plastic, glass bottles, and metal cans. Recycled material gets used over again. Recycling helps cut down on pollution.

 

Recycling

Think of all the things you throw away: juice bottles, soda cans, candy wrappers. It adds up. How much trash do you produce?Americans throw away an average of 1 ton of trash per person every year. That’s 2,000 pounds (907 kilograms) of garbage! Most of this trash gets buried in big holes in the ground called landfills. A lot of this garbage can be recycled, or turned back into something useful. Just about any material can be recycled. The main things we recycle today are made from metal, paper, glass, or plastic.People recycle for many reasons. One of the main reasons is to conserve resources. Making new aluminum cans out of old ones means less aluminum is needed for new cans. This leads to a second reason people recycle: It saves energy. Recycling old aluminum cans takes a lot less energy than making new aluminum. To make new aluminum, you need to mine metal ore from the ground, remove the impurities, and refine it into a finished metal.

Recycling also conserves valuable land. By recycling, we produce less garbage. That means fewer landfills are needed for dumping our trash.

RECYCLING METAL

Because metals are somewhat costly to make, they are the world’s most recycled materials. About two-thirds of all steel is recycled.

Steel cans and scrap steel go to recycling plants where the steel is melted down. The steel is then treated with chemicals to make it pure again. Finally, it is formed into sheets or bars. These are shipped to companies that make new cans and other steel objects.Almost all beverage cans are made of aluminum. Americans recycle about one-third of their used aluminum cans. Empty cans are sent to special factories. There, they are cleaned, melted, and rolled into new sheets of aluminum.

RECYCLING PAPER

Americans use lots of paper—mostly in the form of newspapers, magazines, and cardboard boxes. In fact, paper takes up more space in landfills than any other material.

Old paper can be shredded and made into new paper. Americans recycle a little more than one-third of their paper trash. New paper is made from trees. Each ton of recycled paper saves about 17 trees!

RECYCLING GLASS

Glass can be recycled, too. Americans recycle less than one-quarter of the glass they use. Perhaps that is because recyclers must take extra effort to recycle glass.First, only bottle glass can be melted and made into new glass. Second, different colors of glass must be melted separately. This means bottles must be separated by color before they can be recycled.

RECYCLING PLASTIC

Seven types of plastics are used to make containers and other objects for consumers. Only three types of plastic can be recycled. Each is treated in a different way. One type can be made into filling for ski jackets. Another type can be made into milk jugs. If mixed together, however, these plastics can’t be recycled.

Only about 6 percent of plastic waste gets recycled in America. In many states, plastic objects must be stamped with a number from 1 to 7. The number shows which type of plastic it is. The plastic can then be separated more easily before it’s recycled.

 

 

HAZARDOUS WASTES

Some wastes cannot be thrown into landfills. They are too dangerous and must be recycled or disposed of in special ways. Hazardous wastes include paint, antifreeze, medical wastes, and old tires. The most commonly recycled hazardous wastes are cleaning fluids and used motor oil.

WHAT HAPPENS TO NUCLEAR WASTES?

The most dangerous wastes of all come from nuclear power plants. These wastes are radioactive. This means they give off harmful, invisible rays. The rays can cause sickness or death. They even harm unborn babies.

Radioactive wastes can be recycled, but doing so is costly and poses dangers to people. In the United States, radioactive wastes are not recycled.

They are sealed in glass, put in steel containers, and buried deep underground. Radioactive wastes can remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years.

                                                     FOOD CHAIN

A tiny insect nibbles on some leaves. The insect skims over a lake. A little fish swimming below spots the insect on top of the water. The fish zooms up and eats the insect.

Later, a slightly larger fish eats the little fish. Then, the slightly larger fish gets eaten by a really big fish. You are in a boat on the lake fishing. You catch the big fish, cook it, and eat it for dinner.

This is a food chain in action.A food chain is the way energy goes from one living thing to another through food. Plants are the first step in most food chains.

Plants use the energy in sunlight to make their own food. Plants store the energy in their leaves and stems. Plants are called primary producers in food chains.

Animals eat the plants that use the Sun’s energy to grow. Animals are called consumers. Animals that eat plants are primary consumers. Animals that eat other animals are secondary consumers. Animals store the energy in their bodies.Energy flows from plants to bigger and bigger animals through the steps of eating and being eaten. Each part of the food chain is directly connected to the other, just like the links in a chain.

 

 

 

Food and nutrition

What is your favorite food? Some people love pizza. Some people love ice cream. Not many would say broccoli is their favorite food.But you can’t eat only pizza and ice cream all the time. You also need fruits, vegetables, and other kinds of foods. Water is also very important for your body.

WHY DO WE NEED FOOD?

You need food for many reasons. You need food in order to live. You need food to satisfy hunger. Your stomach feels hungry when you need to eat more food.Your body needs food to make energy. Every part of your body uses energy from food. Your brain uses energy to think. Your heart uses energy to beat. Your muscles use energy to move.Growing requires food. Your body also needs energy from food to stay warm.Eating the right kinds of foods can help keep you healthy. Eating certain foods can help prevent some diseases.

WHY DO WE NEED WATER?

The human body is 65 percent water. Water makes up most of your blood and helps carry oxygen and food to the cells in your body. Water helps your body get rid of wastes through urine and sweat. Water does many other things inside your body.You could live only eight to ten days without water. You could live for weeks without food. You need eight to ten cups of water each day to replace the water that your body uses up. But don’t worry—drinks such as milk or juice contain mostly water. Many foods, especially juicy fruits, contain water as well.

WHAT ARE THE BEST FOODS TO EAT?

You need all kinds of foods to keep your body strong and healthy. Nutritionists (scientists who study food and nutrition) say you should eat grains, such as bread, pasta, and cereal. You should eat eggs, milk, cheese, and other dairy products. You should eat meat, fish, beans, or tofu (bean curd). They also say you need to eat plenty of fruits and vegetables every day. But you should not eat too many foods with lots of fats or sugars.You need to eat some of each of these different kinds of foods to get chemicals called nutrients. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water are nutrients.

WHAT ARE CARBOHYDRATES?

Carbohydrates are your body’s main source of energy. Carbohydrates come from starches and sugars. Starchy foods are breads, cereals, pasta, corn, beans, peas, and potatoes. Sugars are in fruits, honey, maple sugar, and the sugar in your sugar bowl. Many vegetables and milk products also have some sugars.Your body breaks down the carbohydrates in sugars and starches to make a very simple kind of sugar called glucose. Glucose goes into your bloodstream. Your blood carries glucose to your brain and your muscles for energy. Extra glucose gets changed so it can be stored in your liver and fat cells. You can use this stored energy later.

WHAT ARE PROTEINS?

Proteins build and repair body tissues, from hair and fingernails to muscles. Proteins also fight infection and carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body.You get proteins from food that comes from animals, such as eggs, milk, meat, fish, and poultry. You can also get proteins from plants, such as vegetables, grains, beans, and rice. Some people called vegetarians do not eat foods from animals. Vegetarians can get all their proteins by eating grains, dried peas and beans, rice, nuts, and tofu.

WHAT ARE FATS?

Fats pack more energy than any other kind of food. Fats play an important role in protecting your cells. Fats help blood to clot if you cut yourself. Fats also help your body take up certain vitamins.There are different kinds of fats. Animal fats come from eggs, dairy products, and meats. These foods are high in saturated fats and cholesterol. Nutritionists believe that eating too much saturated fat and cholesterol is bad for your health. Vegetable fats come from such foods as avocados, olives, nuts, and vegetable oils. These foods contain different kinds of fat that are healthier.

WHAT ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS?

Your body needs small amounts of vitamins and minerals for good health. Vitamins are chemicals that help your body use carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. You need certain vitamins to build blood cells and body chemicals such as hormones.

Not getting enough vitamins can cause serious diseases. Long ago sailors on long sea voyages did not have fresh food. They suffered from a disease called scurvy. Their gums bled and their teeth fell out. They bruised easily. Many sailors died from scurvy. Scurvy is caused by a lack of vitamin C. A doctor in the 1700s discovered that giving sailors lime juice prevented scurvy. Citrus fruits like limes are full of vitamin C.

You need small amounts of certain minerals for healthy teeth and bones. The mineral calcium is very important for building strong bones. You need other minerals to help your muscles and nerves work. Iron is an important mineral for your blood.

You can get all the vitamins and minerals you need by eating a wide variety of foods. That is why you need to eat fruits, broccoli, and other vegetables along with your pizza and ice cream.

 

 

 

Earth

Pretend you are an alien explorer from outer space looking for life on other planets. Your spaceship flies into a group of stars that looks like a gigantic whirlpool. The whirlpool is the Milky Way Galaxy.

You head for a star with nine planets in one arm of the Milky Way. The third planet from the star is a beautiful blue, white, and green ball. This planet looks like it has life. The name of this planet is Earth.

HOW DOES EARTH MOVE IN SPACE?

Earth spins like a top on its axis. Earth’s axis is an imaginary line that goes through Earth from the North Pole to the South Pole. Earth’s axis is slightly tipped, like a spinning top leaning to one side.

Earth travels around the Sun at about 67,000 miles per hour (about 107,000 kilometers per hour). One year is one trip around the Sun. Earth’s path around the Sun is slightly oval-shaped. This oval shape causes Earth’s distance from the Sun to change during the year.

 

WHAT MAKES DAY AND NIGHT?

The Sun seems to rise in the morning, cross the sky during the day, and set at night. However, the Sun does not actually move around Earth. Earth’s turning on its axis makes it look as if the Sun is moving.

Earth makes a complete turn on its axis every 24 hours. As Earth turns, half of the planet faces the Sun, and the other half faces away. It is daytime on the half facing the Sun. It is night on the half facing away from the Sun.

WHY ARE THERE SEASONS?

Earth has seasons because of the tilt of its axis. For part of the year, the top half of Earth is tipped toward the Sun. The top half of Earth is called the Northern Hemisphere. During another part of the year, the bottom half of Earth is tipped toward the Sun. The bottom half is called the Southern Hemisphere. It is summer in the half that is tipped toward the Sun. It is winter in the half tipped away. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere. During spring and fall the hemispheres are tipped neither toward nor away from the Sun.

The equator is an imaginary line around Earth’s middle. The farther you are from the equator, the greater the difference in temperature between seasons. The equator never tips far from the Sun. Near the equator it is warm enough to go swimming all year long. The average temperature barely changes from month to month. In Alaska, far from the equator, the average temperature in January can be more than 60 degrees colder than it is in July.

WHY IS THERE LIFE ON EARTH?

Earth has just the right conditions for life. It is not too hot or too cold. Earth has lots of liquid water and an atmosphere (gases) that can support life.

The first kinds of life may have appeared on Earth 3.8 billion (3,800,000,000) years ago. Several times during Earth’s history, almost all life went extinct, or disappeared. Each time, some life forms survived. The survivors spread all over the planet. Dinosaurs appeared about 230 million years ago. Dinosaurs went extinct about 65 million years ago. Scientists believe that modern humans appeared about 130,000 years ago.

WHAT IS THE INSIDE OF EARTH LIKE?

Earth is made of layers. The top layer is called the crust. It is made of hard rock and soil.

More than 70 percent of Earth’s crust is covered with water. Most of the water is salt water in the ocean. Pieces of dry land called continents rise above the ocean. The part of Earth’s crust under the ocean is called the seafloor.

Under the crust is a layer of partly melted rock called the mantle. Under the mantle is Earth’s core. The core is mostly iron. The outer part of the core is liquid metal. The inside of the core is solid metal. Scientists believe that the liquid metal makes Earth a giant magnet and creates Earth’s magnetic field.

Earth’s crust is made of gigantic slabs of rock called plates that move over the mantle. Plates crash together to make mountains. They pull apart and let red-hot rock ooze up from inside Earth to make new crust.

HOW DID EARTH FORM?

Scientists think that Earth and the rest of the solar system formed from a spinning cloud of gas and dust. Gravity pulled most of the gas and dust together to form the Sun. Some leftover gas and dust formed Earth and the other planets. Scientists think that Earth and the Moon formed about 4.6 billion years ago.

 

 

 

 

Computer

 

You’ve probably known about computers your whole life. But computers have not really been around for very long. Computers started to become popular with big companies in the 1960s. Computers didn’t become widespread in homes and schools until the 1980s.

HOW DO PEOPLE USE COMPUTERS?

People use computers in many ways. Stores use computers to keep track of products and check you out at the cash register. Banks use computers to send money all over the world.

Computers help teachers keep track of lessons and grades. They help students do research and learn. Computers let you hook up to networks (many computers hooked together). They let you hook up to a worldwide network called the Internet.

Scientists use computers to solve research problems. Engineers use computers to make cars, trucks, and airplanes. Architects use computers to design houses and other buildings. The police use computers to track down criminals. The military uses computers to make and read coded messages.

Computers are not just desktops and laptops. Computers are everywhere around your home. There are tiny computers inside microwave ovens, television sets, and videocassette recorders (VCRs) or digital video disc (DVD) players. There are even tiny computers in cars to help them run better.

HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

Computers need hardware and software in order to work. Your desktop or laptop and all the parts inside are called hardware. The central processing unit (CPU) makes the computer work. The keyboard, mouse, printer, and monitor are also pieces of computer hardware.

Memory chips are hardware that stores information and instructions. Information also gets stored on the hard disk drive.

The programs that run the computer are called software. The computer operating system is software that tells the computer how to run. Applications or programs are software that do certain tasks. Word-processing programs, for example, let you write school reports and letters.

HOW CAN COMPUTERS DO SO MUCH?

One reason that computers can do so much is that they have a special language that tells them what to do. Computer language has only two letters: zeros and ones. Computers can read these ones and zeros extremely quickly.

Each zero or one is called a bit. Eight zeros and ones together are called a byte. Bits and bytes get stored in computer memory chips. Every year, computer engineers make chips that can hold more bytes. The chips can hold more information. Programmers can write applications that can do more things.

WHO INVENTED THE COMPUTER?

Many inventions have contributed to the development of modern computers. French mathematician Blaise Pascal and other inventors in the 1600s began making machines that could add and subtract numbers. Wheels, levers, and other moving parts made these machines work. In the 1800s, British mathematicians Charles Babbage and Augusta Ada Byron, countess of Lovelace, worked on plans for machines that could store information on cards with holes punched in them.

American inventor Herman Hollerith made a machine that automatically totaled population figures for the 1890 United States census. His company joined with other companies to become International Business Machines (IBM) in 1924. Other inventors built better computers. But none of these early computers were digital—that is, none used the digits zero and one.

The first digital computer, called ENIAC, was built in the 1940s. It was huge. It was as big as a house. It had more than 18,000 glass tubes inside and weighed more than five elephants.

The first computer used by business was called UNIVAC. Big computers like ENIAC and UNIVAC were called mainframes. The desktop or laptop computer that you use today is much more powerful than those big machines.

In the 1940s, scientists at Bell Telephone Laboratories invented a tiny electric switch called the transistor. In the 1960s, scientists and engineers invented integrated circuits or computer chips. Computer chips cram millions of transistors into a space the size of your little fingernail. Computer chips allowed computers to be smaller.

Personal computers (PCs) were invented in the 1970s. Most PCs are meant to be used by only one person at a time. They are small enough to fit on a desk. The Altair 8800 was the first PC. Apple Computer made its first PC in 1977. IBM made its first PC in 1981.

WHO INVENTED COMPUTER PROGRAMS?

Computer programs are sets of instructions that tell a computer what to do. Many people worked on early computer programs. The first programs were very hard to write and understand. They were extremely long strings of zeros and ones.

American naval officer and mathematician Grace Murray Hopper in 1952 wrote the first program that turned English computer instructions into the strings of ones and zeros that make computers work. These programs are called compilers. In 1957, she helped develop the first programming language that companies could buy and use. It was called FLOW-MATIC. Hopper was also the first to use the word bug to mean a problem with a computer. She found a moth trapped in one of the computers she worked with. She taped the moth into her notebook and wrote, “First actual case of a bug being found.”

LATER DEVELOPMENTS

As computers have become more powerful and widespread, operating systems have become extremely complex. Few people can use a computer without one. Scientists at AT&T developed an operating system called UNIX in 1969. UNIX and related operating systems such as Linux are popular at universities and among computer professionals. In 1975, Bill Gates and his friend Paul Allen wrote a program for the Altair 8800 and founded the Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft later developed the DOS and Windows operating systems used on many home and office PCs.

Computers keep getting smaller and more powerful. Personal computers that fit on a desktop today are more powerful than early “supercomputers” that filled entire rooms. Cell phones and watches contain tiny computers that can store information such as telephone numbers, addresses, and appointments. These devices allow you to surf the Web and play games. Many computer experts think that computers have only begun to make their mark on history.

                                          Exercise or sport

People exercise to keep healthy. They exercise to lose weight or to stay fit. They exercise to make their muscles bigger and stronger. Maybe you play soccer or some other sport for exercise. Getting exercise can be fun and can make you feel good.

Exercise is a big part of staying physically fit. People who are physically fit are alert and full of energy. Exercise can also help people handle stress. Exercise is especially good for children, teens, and older persons.

NOT ALL EXERCISE IS THE SAME

There are two main types of exercise: aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic exercise works big muscles in your arms and legs. Aerobic exercise makes your muscles use oxygen faster than usual. It makes your heart and lungs work harder to supply your muscles with oxygen. Running, walking, jogging, and swimming are kinds of aerobic exercise.

Anaerobic exercise works just a few muscles at a time. Weightlifting is a kind of anaerobic exercise. Weightlifting and other kinds of anaerobic exercise make your muscles bigger and stronger. Anaerobic exercise does not require a lot of oxygen. It does not work your heart or lungs. You can only do anaerobic exercise for short periods of time because the muscles you’re using quickly get tired.

 

EXERCISE THAT HELPS THE HEART

Doctors say that regular aerobic exercise leads to a healthier heart. Jogging, walking, riding a bicycle, and other aerobic exercises lower the risk of heart disease. In one kind of heart disease, fatty stuff called plaque builds up in blood vessels going to the heart. Aerobic exercise helps prevent this buildup. Aerobic exercise also makes the heart and lungs stronger.

Doctors say you should do 20 to 30 minutes of aerobic exercise at least three times a week. You need to exercise hard enough to get your heart beating faster than normal. You can feel your heart beating. Use two fingers to feel a beat, or pulse, in your wrist or neck.

EXERCISE THAT INCREASES STRENGTH

Some kinds of exercise are better at increasing strength than others. Usually people work out with weights if they want to improve their muscle strength. They use free weights, weights that are not attached to anything, such as barbells. Or they use strength-training machines. Strength training can also make bones stronger.It is a good idea to have a trainer or physical education teacher show you how to lift weights properly. It is important not to injure yourself when lifting weights. Start out with small weights. Try lifting heavier and heavier weights as your muscles get stronger.

EXERCISE THAT HELPS CONTROL WEIGHT

Aerobic exercise can help you lose weight. It can help you stay at a healthy weight. Aerobic exercise burns calories.A calorie is a unit of measurement. It measures the amount of energy in foods. It measures the amount of energy your body uses.When you take in the same number of calories that you burn every day, your weight stays the same. If you take in more calories than you burn, you gain weight. If you take in fewer calories than you burn, you lose weight. Regular exercise helps you burn calories.Strength training may also help with weight control. Lifting weights burns calories. Lifting weights also makes more muscle in your body. Muscles burn more calories than fat.

EXERCISE THAT MAKES YOU FLEXIBLE

Stretching exercises can make your body more flexible. There are stretches for your arms, legs, neck, and trunk. Many people do slow exercises and stretches called yoga to make their bodies more flexible. A physical education teacher can show you how to do stretches.

You should do warm-up stretches before you do aerobic or anaerobic exercises. You should do cool-down stretches when you are finished exercising. Warm-up and cool-down stretches can help prevent muscle injuries.

 

 

Human body

Your body is amazing. Did you know you have more than 200 bones and 600 muscles? Your nerves carry messages from your brain to make those muscles cooperate so you can stand up and move around. Your blood vessels could stretch all the way around the planet! White blood cells stand guard like soldiers waiting to attack any invader. Your heart, lungs, stomach, and other organs are at work 24 hours a day for your entire life. There are too many parts inside you to count, but they all work together to keep you alive. No machine is as complex as you are.

The many parts of your body are grouped into systems. Each system has a job to do in your body. The systems work together to keep you alive and healthy.

BONES AND MUSCLES

The bones and muscles of your body let you move around. Tough bands called ligaments connect your bones to each other. The connections are called joints. Some joints can move a lot. Your arm at your shoulder joint can move in circles. Your lower leg at your knee joint can only move back and forth. The bones in your skull have special joints that cannot move at all.

Muscles attached to bones pull on them to make your body move. The muscles get their orders to move from your brain and nerves.

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Your brain and nerves make up your nervous system. Your brain is the command center of your body. Your brain sends signals through your nerves. Some signals from your brain control your muscles. Suppose you want to walk across the street. Your brain sends signals that tell the muscles in your legs to move.You do not have to think about some of the signals your brain sends out through your nerves. Your nervous system tells your heart to beat and your lungs to breathe even when you are sleeping.Nerves also send signals back to your brain. Nerves tell your brain what your eyes see. They tell your brain when you stub your toe.

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Your circulatory system is made up of your heart and blood vessels. Blood vessels are flexible, hollow tubes. Your heart pumps blood through blood vessels. It sends blood to your lungs to pick up oxygen. It pumps blood out to all parts of your body.Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood out to your body. Veins are blood vessels that carry blood back to your heart. The blood vessels near your heart are thick. Farther from your heart, the blood vessels are smaller.The tiniest blood vessels are called capillaries. Capillaries go all through your body. They give up oxygen and nutrients that your body needs. They carry away waste products.

 

IMMUNE SYSTEM

Your immune system defends against germs and other things that make you sick. White blood cells and other chemical weapons of the immune system rush to find and destroy the germ. Special white blood cells and chemical “watchdogs” called antibodies stand guard. Sometimes antibodies grab onto a germ that shows up. White blood cells called T cells attack germs directly.Many T cells get stored in little pouches called lymph nodes. Lymph nodes in your neck and other places sometimes swell up when your body is fighting off germs. Some people call this “swollen glands.”

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Respiration is breathing. You use your lungs to breathe. You breathe air into your lungs. The air contains oxygen, a gas you need in order to live. Blood in your lungs picks up the oxygen and carries it to all parts of your body.Blood coming back to your lungs gives off carbon dioxide, a waste gas. Your lungs send carbon dioxide out of your body when you breathe out.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Your digestive system is like a long tube that goes down through your body. Your digestive system breaks down the food you eat. It breaks down food so that your body can use it for energy.Your teeth grind up food in your mouth and mix it with saliva. You swallow the ground-up food. It goes into your stomach where it gets broken down even more.Food goes from your stomach to your small intestine. Nutrients pass through the walls of your intestine and into your blood. Your blood carries the nutrients to all parts of your body.

Your body gets rid of any leftover waste products. Liquid waste products go to your kidneys. You get rid of these waste products as urine. Solid waste products go to your large intestine. You get rid of these waste products as feces.

 

                           Television

You probably have a favorite television show. Maybe you have more than one favorite TV show. Did you ever wonder where your favorite shows come from? Did you ever wonder how they get to the TV set in your home?

WHERE DO TV SHOWS COME FROM?

Some TV shows are made in TV studios. Some of these shows are broadcast live—that is, as they are being made. Some shows are taped in the studio. The tape gets played on TV later on.

Other TV shows are made outside of studios. Baseball and football games and other sports events come from stadiums. Some parts of news programs are broadcast “on the scene.” TV reporters go to the scenes of accidents, floods, and fires and describe what is happening.Shows in studios are made on sets. Sets for plays or soap operas can look like living rooms or kitchens. Sets for talk shows might have a desk for the host and chairs for the guests. Bright lights shine down on the sets.

HOW ARE TV PICTURES MADE?

A TV picture starts with a TV camera. Some TV cameras are big and some are small. The cameras in TV studios are big. Camera operators roll the big cameras around on wheels. There are usually several big cameras in a TV studio. Cameras used outside a TV studio are smaller. TV camera crews take the smaller cameras to news and sports events.

Some cameras send out live pictures to your TV set. Some cameras make videotapes that get played later on a television program.All TV cameras need electricity to work. A camera operator points the camera at a scene. The camera picks up light from the scene. It changes this light into an electric signal called the video signal. A microphone changes the sound of people talking or music playing into an electric signal called the audio signal.TV cameras do not snap pictures the way an ordinary camera does. Parts inside a TV camera scan, or sweep over, the scene and trace a series of thin, horizontal lines, one below the other. A TV camera scans a whole scene much faster than you can blink. Lines from the scans go together to make a picture.

THE TV CONTROL ROOM

The pictures and sound from the TV cameras and microphones go to a control room. Every television station has one or more control rooms. TV cameras in a studio can send live pictures to the control room. The control room is full of dials, switches, and small TV screens. There are screens that show pictures from each TV camera in the studio.Producers and directors work in the control room. They make sure that the best pictures with the best views go to your TV screen at home.People who work in control rooms also use taped pictures to make programs. They use computers to put together the best taped scenes.

HOW DOES THE SHOW GET TO YOUR HOME?

The picture and sound signals go from the control room to a transmitter. The transmitter makes the signals stronger and sends them to a transmitting antenna. This antenna is very tall. It changes the electric signals into invisible television signals that go through the air. The television signals go out from the antenna in all directions.TV signals can get to the TV set at your home in several ways. They can go through the air to an antenna on your roof. The antenna picks up the signals and sends them through wires to your TV set. The signals could go to a cable TV company. The company sends the signals through a cable to your home. The TV signals could come right to your house from a satellite circling high above Earth. A satellite dish outside your home can pick up the TV signals and send them over wires to your TV set indoors.

HOW DOES YOUR TV SET WORK?

Your TV set changes the television signals back into pictures and sound. Your set picks up the thin lines that the TV camera scanned. Your set uses parts called electron guns to “paint” a picture on the TV screen one thin line at a time. The lines get painted from top to bottom.

A color TV set uses three electron guns to beam out three colors—red, green, and blue. These three colors make all the colors you see on your TV screen. The beams scan fast enough to paint a picture on your screen 30 times a second.

OTHER WAYS TO USE TELEVISION

Television can do many things. TV cameras can be sent to places that are difficult or dangerous for people. They can travel to outer space. Spacecraft carry TV cameras to other planets. The cameras send back pictures that let us see what other planets look like.TV cameras on robot submarines can go deep down in the sea. Doctors use tiny TV cameras to see inside the human body.

WHEN WAS TV INVENTED?

Inventors made the first TV pictures in the 1920s. Television stations started broadcasting the first regular TV shows in the 1940s. The first TV sets had small screens. The first TV sets showed black-and-white pictures.Television sets have gotten better and better. Most TVs sold today show color pictures. TV screens have gotten bigger and bigger. TV sets have gotten thinner. Plasma TV sets are so thin that you can hang them on a wall.

                                 Radio

There is music in the air all around you. There are sounds of people talking in the air all around you. The sounds of music and talking are carried by radio waves. There are radio waves everywhere indoors and outdoors.Radio waves are invisible. You cannot see or feel them. You can only hear radio waves if you turn on a radio. Radios turn radio waves into sound.

HOW DOES A RADIO WORK?

Radios need electricity in order to work. Your portable radio gets electricity from batteries. Your clock radio gets electricity from a cord that you plug into an electrical outlet in a wall.

Radios have a power switch or button that lets you turn the radio on or off. Radios have a volume control that lets you play the sounds loudly or softly. Radios also have a dial or button that lets you tune in your favorite radio stations. Each station has a special number on the dial. When you tune in a station, your radio turns radio waves from that station into sound.

Radios have a special wire called an antenna that can pick up radio waves in the air. Radios first turn the radio waves into electrical signals. Then they turn the electrical signals into the sounds of music, traffic and weather reports, or news about your hometown sports teams.

HOW DO RADIO WAVES GET INTO THE AIR?

A radio station sends electrical signals through wires to a tall tower called a broadcast antenna. Electrical signals get changed into radio waves at the antenna. The antenna sends the radio waves out in all directions.

Some radio stations broadcast on AM radio waves. Some programs are broadcast on FM waves. AM radio waves travel farther than FM waves, but FM waves make clearer sounds. Most radios can pick up both AM and FM radio waves.

TWO-WAY RADIO

Radio broadcasts only go one way, from the station to your radio. You can listen to radio, but you cannot talk back. Two-way radio lets people talk to each other on radio waves.

Police officers and firefighters use two-way radio. Firefighters at a big blaze can call for more help on their two-way radios. Soldiers use two-way radios on battlefields.

CELL PHONES AND WIRELESS COMPUTERS

Cell phones use radio waves. Your cell phone sends your phone calls on radio waves to an antenna. The antenna passes your call along. You can talk on a cell phone in a car, on a bus, or just when you are walking around.

Some computers hook up to the Internet with radio waves. These computers have special antennas that can find wireless “hot spots.” These computers do not need to be plugged into a telephone line to surf the Internet.

OTHER WAYS WE USE RADIO WAVES

The radar that lets airplanes and ships “see” things in fog or things far away uses radio waves. Radar systems send out radio waves. The radio waves bounce back from any large object they hit and make images on a radar screen.

Radio waves help us explore deep space. Radio telescopes listen for radio waves from far away in the universe. Astronauts in spacecraft talk to control centers on Earth using radio waves. Radio waves beam pictures to Earth from cameras on space probes visiting other planets.

Doctors use radio waves to see inside the body. They use radio waves from MRI machines to make pictures of people’s insides.

WHO INVENTED RADIO?

During the 1800s, several scientists made discoveries that led to the invention of radio. An Italian inventor named Guglielmo Marconi sent the first sounds on radio waves in 1895. The sounds he sent were just clicks. The clicks were a kind of code that carried telegraph messages. People already knew how to send telegraph messages over wires on land. Telegraph messages sent on radio waves helped ships at sea where there were no wires. Sinking ships could send messages calling for help.

Other inventors learned how to send music and voices over radio waves. Radio stations began broadcasting programs in the 1920s. Families used to gather around the radio to listen to band music, soap operas, or other radio programs.

Inventors have found more and more uses for radio waves. Radio waves have become very important for helping you stay in touch with family and friends.

 

 

Music

Music is part of every culture on Earth. Many people feel that music makes life worth living. We can make music ourselves if we play an instrument or sing. We can hear music on CDs and on radio or television. Music gives us pleasure. It can cheer us up, excite us, or soothe us.

WHAT IS MUSIC?

Music can be happy, sad, romantic, sleepy, spine-tingling, healing—all kinds of things. But what is it? Some people define it as an artful arrangement of sounds across time. Our ears interpret these sounds as loud or soft, high or low, rapid and short, or slow and smooth. The sounds need to continue for a time in some sort of pattern to become music.

Music, like language, is a uniquely human form of communication. As with language, there are many different kinds. In North America, people listen to jazz, rock, classical, folk, country, and many other kinds of music. Each kind of music has its own rules and “speaks” to us in its own way.

What we think of as music depends on where we live. What Americans are used to listening to might sound strange to someone from another culture, and vice versa. It might not even sound like music. In Indonesia, gamelan orchestras play music on gongs, drums, and xylophones. These aren’t the instruments you’d find in a typical orchestra in North America.

Today, modern communications make it possible for us to listen to music from all over the world. Music from one part of the world influences music from another part. For example, gamelan music from Indonesia influenced 20th-century American composers such as John Cage.

WHO INVENTED MUSIC?

No one knows for sure when music began. Perhaps while people were working, they began to chant or sing to make the work go faster. People who were repeating movements—picking crops or rowing boats, for example—could sing or chant in time to the work. Navajo Indians, for example, had corn-grinding songs. Many cultures developed work songs.

Over time, people developed musical instruments. They might have started by clapping their hands and stamping their feet. Sticks and objects that rattled could have replaced the human body as early instruments. Both instruments and music became more complex with time.

Today, many cultures divide music into art music and music of the people. Art music, which we call classical music, is more complicated than the music of the people—folk music and popular music. Art music is generally harder to write and perform. Musicians who perform it need a lot of training. Popular and folk styles typically are easier to create, perform, and understand.

MELODY AND RHYTHM

Melody and rhythm are two basic elements of music. Melody is a series of notes. We know it as the tune. Melody is based on notes that vary in pitch—that is, in how high or low they are. When several notes, or pitches, sound together, it’s called harmony. Rhythm is the pattern of the notes. When notes are grouped together, they have a rhythm, or beat. The beat is what we tap our feet to. Rock music is known for its strong beat.

WHY IS MUSIC IMPORTANT?

Music goes along with many of our activities. We dance to music. We sing songs at school. Many of us exercise to music. Bands play at football games. We hear music in cars and stores. Music accompanies many important occasions. At a wedding, for example, the bride marches down the aisle to music.

Music has always been important to religious ceremonies. Music is heard in Christian churches, Jewish synagogues, Islamic mosques, and other places of worship.

Music entertains us. We listen to show tunes, spirituals, pop, opera, and rock. We have favorite performers. We hear music as the background in movies. Perhaps we go to the theater to see a musical—a movie or play with music, singing, and often with dancing. Music is part of our lives.

 

Musical instruments

Everybody likes to pick up something and make noise with it. Haven’t you banged your spoon on the table? Or run your finger around the top of a glass of water to make it hum? You probably didn’t think of this as playing a musical instrument. But it’s likely that musical instruments got started this way—perhaps by people beating two sticks together, blowing on hollow stalks, or rattling dried pods with seeds in them.

WHAT’S IN A SOUND?

Anything that makes sound could be a musical instrument. But we usually think of musical instruments as objects specially created to produce the sounds of the music we know—folk, rock, classical, and all other types.Musical instruments range from simple to complex. They differ from one part of the world to another. But all instruments produce sound the same way, by means of vibrations (rapid back-and-forth movements). These vibrations reach our ears as sound waves. We can group musical instruments into families by how they produce vibrations. Vibrations come from striking, plucking, and blowing on instruments, or by moving a bow across them. Faster vibrations produce higher notes.

INSTRUMENTS WE STRIKE

Instruments we strike range from hollowed-out logs to complicated bells. We strike gongs and xylophones. When we shake a rattle, objects inside it strike the rattle’s wall and make a sound. Our fingers can strike or scrape against a washboard or the rim of a glass to produce sounds. Instruments that make sounds by striking them have been used since the Stone Age. Striking the instrument starts the vibrations.

Sometimes we strike an object that has a skin or other membrane stretched tight across it. This kind of instrument is a drum. The stretched membrane vibrates to produce the sound. Drums are found in nearly every culture around the world.

INSTRUMENTS WE BLOW ON

Flutes, trumpets, saxophones, and other instruments produce sound through vibrations of air. A flute sounds when we breathe air into a hole on its side or its end. By covering finger holes on the flute, we can change the pitch of the notes—how high or low the notes are.

In some instruments, a thin piece of metal or plastic in the mouthpiece vibrates when we blow on it. These instruments are called reed instruments. They include the bassoon, clarinet, oboe, and saxophone. The bagpipe is also a reed instrument. The bagpiper blows air into the bags, and presses the bags to send air into the pipes where a reed vibrates. Pressure from our lips helps make the air vibrate when we blow into a horn, trombone, trumpet, or tuba.

INSTRUMENTS WITH STRINGS

Some musical instruments, such as violins and harps, have strings that vibrate. Stretching the strings by plucking or striking makes them vibrate. Violins, violas, and cellos are played by drawing a bow across their strings. The guitar, lute, banjo, and harp have strings that are plucked with the fingers. The piano has strings and a keyboard. Pressing a key on the keyboard causes a string to be hit with a small hammer.

INSTRUMENTS WITH ELECTRICITY

Some instruments use electrical equipment to produce or change their sounds. Electric guitars use electric current to make their sound a lot louder than the usual guitar. Synthesizers use electric current to produce sound. A group of synthesizers linked together can produce the sound of an entire orchestra. Computers control sound synthesizers made today.

 

Money

Why is a dollar bill valuable? After all, you can’t eat it. You can’t wear it. It’s just a piece of paper. But you can trade dollars for things that you can eat or wear. The bills are worth something because everyone agrees that they have value.

WHAT IS MONEY?

Money is anything that is widely exchanged for goods people sell or work they do. It is a form of payment people will accept. Long ago, precious metals such as gold and silver were used as money. Today, paper bills and coins are a common form of money.

Money has other uses, too. One of them is to measure the value of things. Bicycles, clothes, even hamburgers have a certain value. That value is the price—how much money people will pay for it.

Money is also a way people store up wealth. People save their money in bank accounts or piggy banks. Saving money is a way of collecting and storing wealth, much like owning land, a home, or jewelry.

MONEY AROUND THE WORLD

Most countries have their own unit of money. The money used by a country is called its currency.

In the United States, the basic unit of money, or currency, is the dollar. Each dollar is divided into 100 cents. The value of anything you want to buy in the United States can be stated in dollars and cents.

Other countries have their own currencies. In the United Kingdom, the value of things is measured in money units called pounds, not dollars. Algerians use neither pounds nor dollars, but dinars. Indians use rupees. Mexicans use pesos. Russians use rubles.

MANY KINDS OF MONEY

Money is more than just paper bills and metal coins. It can be just about anything, as long as everyone agrees.

Over the course of history, many items have been used as money. Shells, beads, furs, salt—even the teeth of dogs—have all been used as money. They were used much like we use bills and coins today.

HOW WAS MONEY INVENTED?

No one person came up with the idea of money. The idea developed slowly. Before money was invented, people traded goods using the barter system.

In the barter system, people trade things for other things directly. Suppose a man had a sheep and wanted clothes. He found someone with an extra suit of clothes who wanted a sheep.

But what if he only wanted a shirt? He might not want to trade his entire sheep for just one shirt. How could he get change for a sheep? Problems like this made bartering difficult. People invented money to make trading easier.

METALS AS MONEY

Eventually, people found they could use precious metals such as gold, silver, or copper to help them trade. Almost everyone wanted these metals. So people could trade what they had for precious metals, knowing they could exchange the metal for something else they wanted or needed.

Metals had other benefits, too. They were easy to store, lasted a long time, and could easily be divided into smaller pieces. If you wanted something small, you could offer just a bit of your metal.

COINS AND BILLS

Once people started trading metals as money, coins were soon invented. A Turkish kingdom called Lydia made the first metal coins around 600 bc. The coins were stamped with the king’s seal. About the same time, people in China began to use paper money.

In the past, paper money often stood for a precious metal like gold. You could go to the government or a bank and trade your paper bills for actual gold.

Today, in most countries, you can’t trade paper money for precious metals. People accept it because they have confidence everyone else will accept it, too.

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نوشته شده توسط راسم قربانی  | لینک ثابت |

سوالات انترچنج دوشنبه 4 مرداد1389 16:21
 

In the name of God

Nikan language institute

Final exam of interchange 1/1 (units 1 - 5 )

 

 

A.Grammatical points .

 

1.what do you do for living ?

A) I live near here.

B) I work here.

C) I do aerobics.

D) I work for union bank.       

                                                         

2. ……..your sister work in Vancouver ?

a) Do                    b) Is                     c) Does                    d) Are

 

3.I saw my cousin in the street……… this morning.

A) in                      b) at                      c) on                       d) ------

 

4.this apartment is not modern. I like ……..apartment.

a) more                                             b) the most modern

c) more modern                                 d) most modern

 

5.music videos aren’t very interesting. Do you like……..?

a) it                        b) her                    c) them                    d) us

 

6.I really like those………..socks.

a) cotton                b) gold                   c) leather                 d) silver

 

7.they have dinner………..Mondays around 10:00 p.m.

a) at                        b) on                      c) in                         d) late

 

8. some one who is able to do things without help is a/an……….person.

a) dependent                                          b) independent

c) intelligent                                            d) old- fashioned

 

9.which one doesn’t belong to travel industry ?

a) flight attendant     b) pilot                     c) receptionist         d) hotel manager

 

10.I wake up …… noon on Fridays.

a) at                          b) before                  c) after                    d) all of them

 

 

 11.write down some ways of saying good- bye .

 

 

12.  Name five things usually worn by women only; and five things usually worn by men.

 

 

B.Match the words on the left with the words on the right ?

 

13.Attend                      clients

14.Advise                     meeting

15.Deal with                           some complaints

 

C.Make sentences with these words.

 

16.over time: ---------------------------------------------------------------.

 

 17.be charge of : ---------------------------------------------------------.

 

18.take off :--------------------------------------------------------------------.

 

19.deal with

 

20.get dressed :---------------------------------------------------------------.

 

D.Who are these people ?

 

21.bricklayer:------------------------------------------------------------------.

 

22.engineer

 

23.plumber

 

 

 

E.Where are these places ?

 

24.green grocer(“s)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

25.chemist(s”)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

26.newsagent(s’)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

F.Answer these questions about yourself .

 

27.what do you do ?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

 

28.is your job a well paid job ?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

 

29.Do you drive a car ? If not, why not ?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

 

30.How often do you brush your teeth ?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

 

31.Do you live in a big city ?

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

32.which musical instruments do you play ?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

 

33.Write down five things you usually wear when you go to a party ?

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

 

34.Are you interested in shopping ? If yes what kind of shopping are you interested ?

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.

 

 

 

G.Make questions for these sentences ?

 

35.A:--------------------------------------------------?

      B:No,he doesn’t smoke very much .

 

 

36.A:---------------------------------------------------?

      B:No, thanks. I’m not thirsty .

 

37.A:-----------------------------------------------------?

      B:John’s  suitcase is heavier than Susan’s.

 

H.Complete these sentences, use than.

 

38.I don’t wake up early. You--------------------------------------.

 

39.this book isn’t very interesting. Your book-----------------------------------------.

 

I.Complete these sentences  with a little bit or much +a comparative     (older/ better,…)

 

40.Jack is 9 . Sara is ten.----------------------------------------------------.

 

41. Yesterday I felt happy. Today I feel sad.--------------------------------------.

 

42. My  cousin is a good cook. I’m not very good.--------------------------------.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

In the name of God

Nikan language institute

final exam of Interchang (6-10)

 

Gramitical points : (5)

 

1. Your mother remarries then you have a ……………………

a. mother in low            b. brother in low               c. step mother       d. step father

 

2. He does not eat meat because she is a ……………………….

a. vet                             b. spa                               c. vegetarian           d. verdict

 

3. Which one is not equipment in sport?

a. bike                           b. crash helmet                c. spikes                  d. sticks

 

4. She outlined the case to him, being careful not to leave any thing out. Leave out means:

a. omit                         b. include                           c. conclude              d. add

 

5. He can not remember ………………….. where the file is .

a. land                        b. in short                             c. my mind              d. in – hand 

 

6. What are you doing in the dining room now ?

a. dinner                     b. eating dinner                    c. dinner                  d. eat dinner

 

7. It was Sunday and ……………….. the shop were shut .

 a. all                          b. most of                             c. some                    d. any

 

8. Which one is incorrect ?

a. you know many people around here ?               b. you drink much coffee ?

c. he does not drink much coffee ?                        d. he does not drink a lot of coffee .

 

9. Would you like …………………… more milk in your coffee ?

a. a little                     b. little                                 c. many                     d. a few   

 

10 . Which we were driving …………. the road suddenly someone jumped in front of the car .

a. less                         b. over                                  c. around                 d. along

 

 

Answer these questions . (5)

 

1. Do you understand my question ? ( most )

 

2. How many of those students were your students ? ( none )

 

3. How many photographs did you take ? ( a lot of )

 

4. Do Bob and Ann drink wine ? ( never )

 

5. Have you read these books ? ( Some )

 

 

 

 

Make sentences with the given words . (6

 

1. Confusing

2. Astonished

3. Enormous

4. It took …

5. Protect

6. Lie down                    

 

Write a definition / a synonym or an antonym for each word ? (7)

1. Cosmopolitan

2. Widower

3. Coach

4. Small talk

5. To keep an eye on something

6. Break into

7. Sort something out

 

Write question for these answers : (5)

1.……………………………………………………………………………………. ?

Had some of it.

 

2.……………………………………………………………………………………….?

I don "t knows much a bout politics.

 

3. ………………………………………………………………………………………..?

No , I have a little in my gas tank .

 

4. …………………………………………………………………………………………. ?

My job is not very interesting .

 

5. ……………………………………………………………………………………………..?

It takes him a long time to learn French

 

Choose a word from the left with from the right . (2)

Warm                                                      cliff

Steep                                                      book

Remedy                                                  monuments

Historical                                                beach

Sea side                                                  tan

 

Answer the following question :

1. How do we describe people's appearance?

2. What is collection? Give example?

3. What are scale and limit adjectives?

4. Define sight seeing holding?

5. Name some places and people for some games

6.What"s hip hop fasion ?

6.What do you know about risky sports?

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Final exam of Intch 1/3 (11-16)

Nikan language Institute

 

 

A.    Grammer

 

1.      People …………….. a bout 12 – 15 times a minute .

 

a. breath                           b. breathe                         c. shake                           d. bend

 

2.      I know that  mr . Bock who runs the company is very generous man .

a. owns                            b. controls                        c. mananges                     d.b and c

 

3.      I have a pain in my leg yesterday when I was running in the park I …………. My ankle .

a. stabbed                         b. beaten up                     c. swollen                        d. twisted

 

4.      Most of the people ……… in this exam are boys .

a. accepting                      b. accepted                       c. accept                          d. accepts

 

5.      …………….. I was very sleepy  I stayed up late .

a. Inspite of                      b. Despite                         c. Even though               d. Though

 

6.      Which one is not an animal .

a. cow                              b. calf                               c. pork                              d. pig

 

7.      When ht rains for short period of time we call it a …………..

Showery                          b. pouring                         c. foggy                           d. rainy

 

8.      It is method cooking when you cook somethings in the oven without oil

a. grill                              b. roast                             c. fry                                d. bake

 

9.      Komico …………. To sing on Saturday .

a. will                             b. going                              c. is going                        d. shall

 

10 . How can she offered ……………. Every night .

a. to eat out                     b. eat out                           c. eating out                      d. eats out

 

 

B.     Write definition .

 

1.      disposable products .

2.      louod mouth

3.      setting personal goal

4.      inform

5.      disaster

6.      departure loung

 

 

C.     Answer the guestions.

 

1.      Name four serious desease and write the symptoms .

2.      Write down 3. advantages and dis advantages of living in the country .

3.      Imagine you want to book a hotel what are you priorties ?

 

D.    Match the words

 

   1. Blow                       a. free

   2. Bite                          b. reclaim

   3. Duty                        c. elbow

   4. Baggage                   d. nose

   5. sore                          e. nail

 

  E.Write the proper adjectives.

 

1.      Humidity ……………..

2.      patience ………………

3.      Similarity …………….

4.      Puncuality ……………

5.      Stupidity ………………

 

E.     Write the noun from of these words .

1. weak ………………                         3. jog

2. discuss …………….                          4. spell

 

F.      Write six words that with  ( ir, il , in , im , dis )

 

 

G.    Write the opposite or synonyms of these words .

 

1.      a long distance call # ………………………….   4. fatty # ………………………

2.      dumping material  =…………………………… 5. tender # ……………………..

3.      book = …………………………………………. 6. piss off = ……………………

 

 

  I . Answer .

 

  British English                                                   American English

 Under ground                                                      …………………

……………..                                                       pavement

Dust bin                                                                 ……………….                   

 

J . Answer the following questions .

 

1.what are the advantages and dis advantages of having cellphone ?

      

      

 

       2. What are personal goals ? How do you set ?

 

  

       3. Is tipping good customs ? why .

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

In the name of God

Nikan language institute

Final exam of  Intch 2/1 ( 1-5 )

A.       Choose the best answer.

1.     He ……………………. Sharply to avoid the dog .

       a. prevented                         b. braked                       c. crashed                         d. damage

 

2.     A legal arrangement by which you borrow money from a bank or similar organization in order to buy a house and you have to pay it back.

a. mortgage                          b. deposit                          c. current account           d. credit

 

3.     Which one is a taste?

a. roast                                    b. bland                          c. flatting                          d. broil

 

4.     The teacher blew the whistle and then the game …………………

a. begins                                  b. began                         c. has begun                      d. begun

 

5.     You …………… use to eat chips when you were younger.

a. did not                                  b. don’t                         c. are not                           d. wont

 

6.     There was very ………………. Time to think a bout this subject.

a. plenty                                     b. few                           c. little                                d. lots of

 

7.     You don’t need bring any more caps. Six will be ………………. .

a. many                                       b. several                     c. few                                 d. plenty

 

8.     I wish I ………………….. buy that cat .

a. wouldn’t                                  b. wont                       c. were not                         d. are not

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

B.   Write definition for these words .

 

1.     Cross walk :

2.     Punctual :

3.     Intersection :

4.     Stairs :

5.     Fare :

………………………………………………………………………………………………

C.   Make question for these sentences .

 

1.     ……………………………………… ? He left the party very early .

2.     ………………………………………. ? He used to live in a castle .

3.     ……………………………………….  ? Yes , a little .

………………………………………………………………………………………………Make sentence with these words ?

1.     chaos;

2.     crash ;

3.     break down;

4.     final call ;

5.     Good condition ;

6.     prevent;

………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

D.   Make a new sentence from these questions.

 

1.     Where is my jacket? Do you know……

2.     Where can find a good hotel? I don t know…. .....................…………………………………………………………………………

E.   Answer the questions a bout yourself.

 

1.     Where do you with you were right now?

2.     What do you with you were doing?

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

F.    English meanings.

 

Break through:

Performance:

Fleeting:

Stable:

Smooth:

Gossip:

Affect:

Secret:

Waste:

Snack:

………………………………………………………………………………………………

G.  Discuss :

 

1.     Getting to know you.

2.     House and apartment.

3.     Cooking method.

4.     going places ( sight seeing )

 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

In the name of God

Final exam of Intch 2/2 (6-10)

Nikan language institute

 

  1. Choose the best answer .

 

  1. There were many people in the street so I ………… . I could not find my  way .

a. get lost                    b. get away                           c. get in                       d. get through

 

  1. I reserved a room in Bankok , but I donot know , if the break fast is ………….

a. excluded                 b. registered                          c. included                  d. booked

 

  1. Which word can not come with suffix – full .

a. pain                            b. help                                 c. home                      d. hope

 

  1. ……………….. she comes early today , we wont miss the chass .

a. if                            b. when                                  c. while                        d. after

 

  1. When you work extra hours , you work ………………….. .

a. nine to five            b. over time                            c. flexi time                d. shift

 

  1. In order to gain ………………… you “d better become …………… .

a. experiences – trainer                        b. experience – intern

c. experiences – intern                          d. experience – trainer

 

  1. Fiona carefully plans her day so she is never late for appointment , she likes to be ………………..

      a. crative                   b. punctual                                 c. forgetful               d. …….

    

    8. Jery tries to help people and never says no when some ones asks him for favor . He seems  

     Likes really ……………. Person .

     a. genours                    b. important                               c. disorganized           d. …..

 

  1. Write the definition for these  words .

     

1.      souvenirs

2.      headline

3.      thoughtful

4.      flexible

 

C.Circle the correct word .

 

1.      If you walk to work , you ……………. Pay for the bus .

a. will have to             b. wont have to                         c. may have to

 

2.      If you ……………. A vacation . you may feel better and move .

a. take                         b. travel                                      c. do not go

 

3.      If you get married , you ……………….. less free – time

a. won”t be                 b. might take                              c. will have

D. Match the words with proper description .

 

1. keep looking                                                 a. whisper

2. speak quietly                                                 b. glance

3. walk quickly                                                  c. march

 

E. Answer following sentences

 

1.      what’s fall in love and staying in love ?

 

2.      what do you know a bout News paper s ?

 

3.      why inventions are important ?

 

4.      what are unique customs ? give some examples .

 

5.      what is career ladder ?

 

   

     F. Grammer

 

1.      Give examples of conditional sentences .

 

2.      Give examples of time clauses .

 

     G. Discus the following subjects .

     

1.      life in 2020

2.      a round the house

3.      manual jobs , example

4.      entertainment in present and past .

In the name of God

Nikan language institute

Final exam of Intch 2/3

 

A.   Choose the best answer

 

1.     John made a shocking decision. Yes, It was absolutely....................................

a. shock                         b. Shocked                                 c. Shocking                         

 

2.     I planned to graduate this semester, but ......................, I failed some of my exams.

       a. lucky                         b. Suddenly                                c. Unfortunately

 

3.     I was looking for a gob when,....................... . I won the lottery and went on vocation instead.

a. miraculously               b. Sadly                                      c. Strangly

 

4.     What does it mean when somebody does this ?

That’s easy , that gesture .................. means every thing is ok .

a. perhaps                        b. Definetly                                  c. Possibly

.................................................................................................................................................

 

B.   Match the following adjectives with proper noun , then write their opposite ( use each adjective only once ) 4

 

Heavy – strong- great – soft – hard.

 

Voice – success- accent – coffee.

.................................................................................................................................................

C. Give definition a bout following words .

 

Stage:                                                           bizarre:

Screen:                                                         disgusting

Subtitle:                                                        gripping movie

.................................................................................................................................................

D.Use the following words in a sentence . 3

1.     well off :

2.     badly  behaved

3.     two – hour delay

4.     hospitable

5.     masterpieces

 

E. What are these notices about ? 3

 

1.     Don’t leave luggage un attendant.

2.     Be aware of pick pocket.

3.     Keep off the grass.

.................................................................................................................................................

F. Replace the items below with some idioms and use in a sentence. 4

1.     What’s the matter?

2.     off hand

3.     Be quick

4.     keep an eye on sb / sth

 

.................................................................................................................................................

G. Discuss.

 

1.     Body language.

2.     Honesty.

3.     commercial.

4.     child hood memory.

..............................................................................................................................................

H. Complete the sentences with  the correct from of these verbs . 4

 

Express – give – make – offer – tell

 

1.     Pam ......................... a lot of jokes at Jennifer “s birthday party last night.

 

2.     We ............................ our congratulations when we heard beth was getting married.

 

3.     When Justin doesn’t want to do something, he never ........................... a reason.

 

4.     When Tony found out I had failed my test, he.......................... his sympathy .

 

..............................................................................................................................................

I.                  Complete the conversation; use the correct form of verbs.

 

1.     A. My sister just graduated, but her new job doesn’t start for two mounth .

B.Really ? If I ...............................(have ) the time , I  ...................... borrow some money and travel .

 

2.     If I............................. (not have ) enough money , I  ..........................( not ask ) a friend for a loan .

          

          J. Rewrite this sentence using who, which, that 1

 

1.     Two and a half man is a popular TV show. It starts Charlie sheen.

            .....................................................................................................................................................

 

            K. Rewrite as passive sentences .3

  

1.     George Lucas directed the star wave’s movie.

 

2.     Tim developed the word war web.

 

3.     Gustavo Eiffel have designed the Eiffel Tower in 1950

 



 

 

نوشته شده توسط راسم قربانی  | لینک ثابت |

fast weight loss - can you really lose weight fast جمعه 1 مرداد1389 22:56

I get emails all the time from people about fast weight loss. Is it possible? Can it be done? If so, how??? They tell me their story and then say something like, "I just want to lose weight fast. I'll do WHATEVER I have to do! What's the fastest way?" Or my favorite, when I get emails from the people I REALLY can't stand. The people who need to lose weight fast because of some type of event that is coming up very soon. Like I get this one all the time. "Hey, I have a wedding to go to in 3 weeks and I need to lose like 25 pounds fast, what can I do?" They really expect me to write back with the answer they are hoping for. I also love the ones that I get a few weeks before summer starts. "Summer is coming up next week and I need to lose 80 million pounds! What should I do?" Ok, 80 million is an exaggeration, but you get my point. Granted, no one wants to workout and eat right and get their results slowly, but is fast weight loss really possible? Is there a diet and/or workout you can do or a pill you can take or a machine you can use that will make the pounds come off faster? I'm going to crush a lot of people's hopes and dreams here, but the answer is NO. ...And here's why.

First off, the right amount of weight that the average person should hope and try to lose a week when eating and working out correctly is something like 1 or 2 pounds a week. That is a good, healthy, safe, smart, effective amount to lose. That right there is fast weight loss. So if you are losing weight at that speed, then hang on tight, because you are going the maximum weight loss speed limit! Yup, 1 or 2 pounds lost a week. Not as fast as most people would hope for, but sadly, that's just the way it is. You just can't lose weight fast, or at least, as fast as many people would like to. Aside from all of the obvious health risks and possible negatives of losing any more than that a week, losing anymore than 1 or 2 pounds a week means you are losing muscle, not fat. As you can guess, that's not good.

The next question someone might have now is about all of those pills and products that promise fast weight loss. And they back up their claims too. They show before and after pictures of people who lost a lot of a weight in a very short amount of time. They have pictures!!!! They can't be lying!!!! These are good people! They only want to help people lose weight fast!! They would never lie just to get our money right?!?!?!?!? WRONG! Before and after pictures are the biggest bunch of bullshit there is. Before and after pictures are so faked that I am having trouble typing this just laughing at the thought of them being actual truthful pictures showing the great results someone got with whatever useless fast weight loss crap they are trying to sell you. Aside from the obvious easy ways of faking them such as putting the head on another body (it's been done) or showing real before and after pictures, except that they were taken 5 years apart instead of 6 weeks apart like they claim (it's been done too), another wonderful faking method is used that some people don't think of. They take a person with an already great body (who got that way by working out correctly and eating right for years) and call that the "after picture." They then get this same person to gain weight. Once they gain enough, they take a picture and call it the "before picture." Yes ladies and gentleman, fast weight loss at it's best!

But my all time favorite lose weight fast bullshit is still to come. This next one always puts a smile on my face, and if you look close enough, you will see it too. There are commercials on TV for all kinds of gimmick weight loss diets and pills and products that all promise fast weight loss. First they bullshit to you... whoops, sorry... I meant "tell you the amazing features of their product" and then show you people, actual people, who used this product or diet and were able lose weight fast. Sometimes they just show their "real" before and after pictures, but sometimes they have the actual people standing there talking. They show you a before picture while this person talks over it and says "I hated my body. I tried everything but nothing ever worked... UNTIL NOW!!!! I lost 50 pounds using ::insert useless crap here:: in just 4 WEEKS and look at me now!!" As funny as it already is, that isn't even the half of it yet. Here comes the real best part. At this point in the commercial, if you put on your glasses, walk all the way up to your TV, bend down, and put your face 2 inches from the screen.... if you look close enough, in small tiny letters that you can just barely read, you will see writing that says something like: "These results are not typical." Excuse me for a second... HAHAHAHAHA!!!

I'm laughing just remembering these fast weight loss commercials. I swear I am not making this up. Most weight loss commercials do this. Sometimes it says "These results are not typical" or sometimes it might say "Just like every body is different, so are their results. You may not get these results." or it will just say something that basically means "The person we are showing you right now who says they lost 50 pounds in 4 weeks is a lying idiot. We are lying to you. We want your money, so we made up all of this stuff so you buy our useless lose weight fast product. Don't expect to get results ANYTHING even close to these that we are showing you. We only show you them so you think you will get these results, even though you really won't. We are assholes. But who cares, because we got your money. We laugh at you because you think fast weight loss is possible. Now that we have this statement on the commercial somewhere, you can't use the product, see no fast results, and then try to sue us for false advertising. Sucks for you don't it? Thanks for your money, maybe we will all buy a new car with it. See ya later."

Wow, I wonder why they make this part of the commercial so hard to see? This just helps prove the fact more and more. Fast weight loss doesn't exist, unless of course your idea of fast weight loss is losing 1 or 2 pounds a week. There is no machine, no special type of cardio, no special diet, no special workout, no special pill, no special anything, that will allow you to lose weight fast safely and healthily. If these people who want such fast results so badly got off their asses and put half their effort that they put into finding a fast "quick fix" and put it into actually working hard, they probably would have lost the weight by now. I've said it once and I'll say it a million times, just eat right and workout correctly. Do it and keep doing it. It won't happen fast, but it will happen. Be consistent. Never stop. Work hard and stay dedicated. Don't be satisfied until you get EXACTLY what you want. And like magic... weight loss happens.

 

 

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